Flashcards in 1-2 - Stages of Child Development Deck (89):
What are the various language development events that can define a "stage"? (5)
What is an example of a Plateau stage?
The one word stage
When does the one word stage tend to occur?
1;0 to 1;6
What happens during a Plateau?
The child's ability stays consistent over a period of time.
e.g., Kids are stuck saying one word at a time for a good while in the one word stage
What is an example of a Transition stage?
The two word stage
When does the two-word stage occur?
What happens during a Transition?
The child is progressing from and building on the previous skill.
What is an example of an Acceleration?
The word spurt stage
When does the word spurt stage occur?
What happens during an acceleration?
There is a rapid change from one linguistic development period to another.
What is an example of a Co-occurrence stage?
The telegraphic stage
When does the telegraphic stage occur?
What happens during a co-occurrence?
A lot of things are being acquired at the same time
What is an example of a Rule stage?
The overregularization stage
‘foots’ instead of ‘feet’
What are three ways to define stage?
Mean length of utterances (MLU)
Who was the first person to talk about stages? When? In what? What was his area of focus?
Who in the large sample period, focused on stages? When was her big year?
Who did Margeret Nice study? Where was she studying at the time?
Her own kids
What's the story with Nice's book?
Wrote first book on child language development but couldn't get it published b/c she wasn't a professor
On what did Nice base her stages on?
On all the available research at the time not just her own
Does Dr. Ingram's prefer Nice's stage terms?
Who in Longitudinal Studies focused on stages? When?
Stages are mostly ______.
When is the Prelinguistic Stage?
0;0 to 1;0
What is happening during the Prelinguistic Stage?
It's the period before words are used
Perception abilities are being developed (Onset of speech perception)
Cooing in first months
When is the onset of babbling?
What is the purpose of the Prelinguistic Stage?
Prepares the child to understand and acquire words
When is the Single Word Stage?
What is happening in the Single Word Stage?
The onset of words around 1;0
Mostly object-like words initially
Slow acquisition of approximately 50 words
What are Holophrases?
Single words with meaning of a sentence
It's like a one word sentence
When is the Early Sentence Stage?
1;6 to 2;0
What is happening in the Early Sentence Stage?
Word Spurt - sudden increase in word acquisition
Onset of multiwords utterances, e.g. “mommy sock”
Seems to only occur after a certain vocabulary density
In the Early Sentence Stage, do all children experience a word spurt?
The Early Sentence Stage is sometimes called the _______.
What are the stages of vocabulary during the Early Sentence Stage?
Substance (things, people, etc.)
Action (run, sit, etc.)
Relation-Attribute (red, big, etc.)
When is the Short Sentence Stage?
What is happening during the Short Sentence Stage?
Onset of GRAMMATICAL DEVELOPMENT (Simple, but grammatically well-formed sentences)
Onset of INFLECTIONS (e.g plural, past tense)
Onset of GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE (e.g. pronouns, prepositions, auxiliaries)
Stable ratio of vocabulary (Nice)
What did Nice see as a stable ratio of vocabulary?
Of 500 words
50% are nouns
25% are verbs
10% are adjectives
15% are the other words
Why are verbs important to track in language development?
There is some evidence that children with language issues have trouble with acquiring verbs
They are essential to acquiring grammar
When is the Complete Sentence Stage?
What is happening during the Complete Sentence Stage?
No specific milestones during this period
Just growing vocabulary and more complex grammar/sentence
Advancing grammatical development
Complex sentences - a sentences with in a sentence
What sorts of clauses develop during the Complete Sentence Stage?
Subordinate clauses - not mastered but emerging
Relative clauses (I saw the cat that was chasing the dog)
Complement clauses (I know that it's raining)
Adverbial clauses (It started to rain when the sun set)
Basic grammar is developed by age _____.
When is the school age stage?
What is developing during the School Age Stage?
Infrequent complex aspects of grammar
Reading & writing (Literature has a diverse syntax to it that aren't part of spoken language)
Expansion of constructions through reformulations
What are Reformulations? What is its purpose?
When kids talk to each other but just say the same thing with a change in structure
This may help expand the children's grammatical knowledge
What is the orthographic rule for spelling the past participle in word that have lax vowels?
You double the final consonant when adding "-ed"
Does Dr. Ingram believe that language is mastered by age 6?
No. It continues to become complex
This is primarily accomplished through the use of derivational mophemes
What field was Brown in? What institution was he associated with?
What was Brown's book called? When was it published? Who did he write it with? Who was it based on?
"A first language"
Study of Adam, Eve, Sarah
How long did Brown study each child? What method did he use? Where can this data be found?
2-4 years depending on the kid
Longitudinal visits every two weeks for one hour
Data on CHILDES database
What was unique about Brown's measurement of MLUs?
He based the MLU on MORPHEMES in a sentence not the number of words in a sentence
e.g. ‘dogs coming in’ = ‘dog/s come/ing in’
3 words vs 5 morphemes
How did Brown rate his stages?
Each stage has:
1. Range of MLU
3. Upper Bound
What was Brown's Upper Bound? How much does this change by stage?
The longest utterance found at these midpoints
Increases by 2 every stage
How did Brown determine where each child was in their language development?
By MLU (not age or stage)
When Brown was developing his stages, how did he go about it?
Compared children at each of the five midpoints
Studied around 823 utterances per kid per midpoint
Inductive study. No hypothesis
Why did Brown study 823 utterances per child per midpoint?
It was the highest sample size across all the midpoints
Why did Brown feel like it was important to do an inductive study?
Since he had no hypothesis, he claimed he discovered real stages by doing it this way
What was the range of Brown's Early I Stage?
(He did not have samples for this range)
What was the range of Brown's Late I Stage?
What was the midpoint of Brown's Late I Stage?
What was the UB (Upper Bound) of Brown's Late I Stage?
What was the range of Brown's Stage II?
What was the midpoint of Brown's Stage II?
What was the UB (Upper Bound) of Brown's Stage II?
What was the range of Brown's Stage III?
What was the midpoint of Brown's Stage III?
What was the UB (Upper Bound) of Brown's Stage III?
What was the range of Brown's Stage IV?
What was the midpoint of Brown's Stage IV?
What was the UB (Upper Bound) of Brown's Stage IV?
What was the range of Brown's Stage V?
What was the midpoint of Brown's Stage V?
What was the UB (Upper Bound) of Brown's Stage V?
What can we use the Upper Bound to estimate?
A child's language development stage
This is easier to calculate than MLU
What is developing in Brown's Stage I?
Semantic roles (e.g. “actor + action”)
What is developing in Brown's Late Stage I?
Semantic sentences with a noun (actor) and an action verb (action)
Object + attribute (big dog)
What is developing in Brown's Stage II?
Modulation of meaning
14 grammatical morphemes
What is developing in Brown's Stage III?
Modalities of the simple sentence
What is developing in Brown's Stage IV?
What is developing in Brown's Stage V?
Coordination and propositional relations
What stages were covered in Brown's 1973 book, "A First Language"?
Only Stages I, II, & III
What is the purpose of Stages?
How do stages offer description?
Identify something that is changing (e.g. word spurt)
What can we do once we've described changes in a child's language development?
We can start to look at the explanation
What might be an explanation for children's word spurts?
Something has changed in the development of their cognitive ability (Ex. Helen Keller had a word spurt just after she realized that signs had meaning.)
They had a change in their phonological ability (They are developing the ability to say words that they already understood)
When we offer an explanation for language development, what must we do?
Give and defend a reason for the change
You haven't explained anything until you can provide the evidence that supports the explanation
What did Charles Brainerd have to say about stages?
The use of stages in psychological studies is useless.
This doesn't explain anything. It only describe something