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Flashcards in 1-2 - Stages of Child Development Deck (89):
0

What are the various language development events that can define a "stage"? (5)

Plateaus

Transitions

Accelerations

Co-occurrences

Rules

1

What is an example of a Plateau stage?

The one word stage

3

When does the one word stage tend to occur?

1;0 to 1;6

3

What happens during a Plateau?

The child's ability stays consistent over a period of time.

e.g., Kids are stuck saying one word at a time for a good while in the one word stage

4

What is an example of a Transition stage?

The two word stage

6

When does the two-word stage occur?

1;6

6

What happens during a Transition?

The child is progressing from and building on the previous skill.

7

What is an example of an Acceleration?

The word spurt stage

8

When does the word spurt stage occur?

1;6

9

What happens during an acceleration?

There is a rapid change from one linguistic development period to another.

10

What is an example of a Co-occurrence stage?

The telegraphic stage

11

When does the telegraphic stage occur?

2;0

12

What happens during a co-occurrence?

A lot of things are being acquired at the same time

13

What is an example of a Rule stage?

The overregularization stage

‘foots’ instead of ‘feet’

14

What are three ways to define stage?

Age

Milestones

Mean length of utterances (MLU)

15

Who was the first person to talk about stages? When? In what? What was his area of focus?

William Stern

1924

Die Kinderspracten

Diary Studies

16

Who in the large sample period, focused on stages? When was her big year?

Margaret Nice

1925

17

Who did Margeret Nice study? Where was she studying at the time?

Her own kids

Clark University

18

What's the story with Nice's book?

Wrote first book on child language development but couldn't get it published b/c she wasn't a professor

19

On what did Nice base her stages on?

On all the available research at the time not just her own

20

Does Dr. Ingram's prefer Nice's stage terms?

Yes

21

Who in Longitudinal Studies focused on stages? When?

Roger Brown

1973

22

Stages are mostly ______.

Milestone markers

23

When is the Prelinguistic Stage?

0;0 to 1;0

24

What is happening during the Prelinguistic Stage?

It's the period before words are used

Perception abilities are being developed (Onset of speech perception)

Cooing in first months

25

When is the onset of babbling?

Around 0;6

26

What is the purpose of the Prelinguistic Stage?

Prepares the child to understand and acquire words

27

When is the Single Word Stage?

1;0-1;6

28

What is happening in the Single Word Stage?

(4)

The onset of words around 1;0

Mostly object-like words initially

Holophrases

Slow acquisition of approximately 50 words

29

What are Holophrases?

Single words with meaning of a sentence

It's like a one word sentence

30

When is the Early Sentence Stage?

1;6 to 2;0

31

What is happening in the Early Sentence Stage?

Word Spurt - sudden increase in word acquisition

Onset of multiwords utterances, e.g. “mommy sock”

Seems to only occur after a certain vocabulary density

32

In the Early Sentence Stage, do all children experience a word spurt?

No

33

The Early Sentence Stage is sometimes called the _______.

Telegraphic stage

34

What are the stages of vocabulary during the Early Sentence Stage?

Substance (things, people, etc.)

Action (run, sit, etc.)

Relation-Attribute (red, big, etc.)

35

When is the Short Sentence Stage?

2;0-2;6

36

What is happening during the Short Sentence Stage?

Onset of GRAMMATICAL DEVELOPMENT (Simple, but grammatically well-formed sentences)

Onset of INFLECTIONS (e.g plural, past tense)

Onset of GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE (e.g. pronouns, prepositions, auxiliaries)

Stable ratio of vocabulary (Nice)

37

What did Nice see as a stable ratio of vocabulary?

Of 500 words

50% are nouns

25% are verbs

10% are adjectives

15% are the other words

38

Why are verbs important to track in language development?

There is some evidence that children with language issues have trouble with acquiring verbs

They are essential to acquiring grammar

39

When is the Complete Sentence Stage?

2;6-6;0

40

What is happening during the Complete Sentence Stage?

No specific milestones during this period

Just growing vocabulary and more complex grammar/sentence

Advancing grammatical development

Complex sentences - a sentences with in a sentence

41

What sorts of clauses develop during the Complete Sentence Stage?

Subordinate clauses - not mastered but emerging

Relative clauses (I saw the cat that was chasing the dog)

Complement clauses (I know that it's raining)

Adverbial clauses (It started to rain when the sun set)

42

Basic grammar is developed by age _____.

6;0

43

When is the school age stage?

6;0

44

What is developing during the School Age Stage?

Infrequent complex aspects of grammar

Reading & writing (Literature has a diverse syntax to it that aren't part of spoken language)

Expansion of constructions through reformulations

45

What are Reformulations? What is its purpose?

When kids talk to each other but just say the same thing with a change in structure

This may help expand the children's grammatical knowledge

46

What is the orthographic rule for spelling the past participle in word that have lax vowels?

You double the final consonant when adding "-ed"

47

Does Dr. Ingram believe that language is mastered by age 6?

No. It continues to become complex

This is primarily accomplished through the use of derivational mophemes

48

What field was Brown in? What institution was he associated with?

Developmental/social psychologist

Harvard

49

What was Brown's book called? When was it published? Who did he write it with? Who was it based on?

"A first language"

1973

Roger

Study of Adam, Eve, Sarah

50

How long did Brown study each child? What method did he use? Where can this data be found?

2-4 years depending on the kid

Longitudinal visits every two weeks for one hour

Data on CHILDES database

51

What was unique about Brown's measurement of MLUs?

He based the MLU on MORPHEMES in a sentence not the number of words in a sentence

e.g. ‘dogs coming in’ = ‘dog/s come/ing in’

3 words vs 5 morphemes

52

How did Brown rate his stages?

Each stage has:

1. Range of MLU

2. Midpoint

3. Upper Bound

53

What was Brown's Upper Bound? How much does this change by stage?

The longest utterance found at these midpoints

Increases by 2 every stage

54

How did Brown determine where each child was in their language development?

By MLU (not age or stage)

55

When Brown was developing his stages, how did he go about it?

Compared children at each of the five midpoints

Studied around 823 utterances per kid per midpoint

Inductive study. No hypothesis

56

Why did Brown study 823 utterances per child per midpoint?

It was the highest sample size across all the midpoints

57

Why did Brown feel like it was important to do an inductive study?

Since he had no hypothesis, he claimed he discovered real stages by doing it this way

58

What was the range of Brown's Early I Stage?

1.0-1.49 Morphemes

(He did not have samples for this range)

59

What was the range of Brown's Late I Stage?

1.5-1.99 (morphemes)

60

What was the midpoint of Brown's Late I Stage?

1.75

61

What was the UB (Upper Bound) of Brown's Late I Stage?

5

62

What was the range of Brown's Stage II?

2.0-2.49

63

What was the midpoint of Brown's Stage II?

2.25

64

What was the UB (Upper Bound) of Brown's Stage II?

7

65

What was the range of Brown's Stage III?

2.5-2.99

66

What was the midpoint of Brown's Stage III?

2.75

67

What was the UB (Upper Bound) of Brown's Stage III?

9

68

What was the range of Brown's Stage IV?

3.0-3.99

69

What was the midpoint of Brown's Stage IV?

3.5

70

What was the UB (Upper Bound) of Brown's Stage IV?

11

71

What was the range of Brown's Stage V?

4+

72

What was the midpoint of Brown's Stage V?

4

73

What was the UB (Upper Bound) of Brown's Stage V?

13

74

What can we use the Upper Bound to estimate?

A child's language development stage

This is easier to calculate than MLU

75

What is developing in Brown's Stage I?

Semantic roles (e.g. “actor + action”)

76

What is developing in Brown's Late Stage I?

Semantic sentences with a noun (actor) and an action verb (action)

Object + attribute (big dog)

77

What is developing in Brown's Stage II?

Modulation of meaning

14 grammatical morphemes

78

What is developing in Brown's Stage III?

Modalities of the simple sentence

Auxiliary acquisition

79

What is developing in Brown's Stage IV?

Embedding sentences

80

What is developing in Brown's Stage V?

Coordination and propositional relations

81

What stages were covered in Brown's 1973 book, "A First Language"?

Only Stages I, II, & III

82

What is the purpose of Stages?

To describe

To explain

83

How do stages offer description?

Identify something that is changing (e.g. word spurt)

84

What can we do once we've described changes in a child's language development?

We can start to look at the explanation

85

What might be an explanation for children's word spurts?

Something has changed in the development of their cognitive ability (Ex. Helen Keller had a word spurt just after she realized that signs had meaning.)

They had a change in their phonological ability (They are developing the ability to say words that they already understood)

86

When we offer an explanation for language development, what must we do?

Give and defend a reason for the change

You haven't explained anything until you can provide the evidence that supports the explanation

87

What did Charles Brainerd have to say about stages?

The use of stages in psychological studies is useless.

This doesn't explain anything. It only describe something

88

What did Brainerd say about providing explanations of thing?

You haven't explained anything until you actually provide the evidence that supports your explanation