1-1 - History of Child Language Studies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1-1 - History of Child Language Studies Deck (98):
0

What is Ethology?

The scientific and objective study of animal behaviour (Subtopic of zoology)

Focuses on animal behaviour under natural conditions

Opposed to behaviourism, which focuses on behavioural response studies in a laboratory setting.

1

Where does "What's Past Is Prologue" come from?

Motto of US Archives

Shakespeare's "The Tempest"

2

What does "What's Past Is Prologue" mean as the motto of US Archives?

Understanding the past helps you understand the present

3

What does "What's Past Is Prologue" mean in regards to Shakespeare's "The Tempest"?

The past shapes the present.

(A couple of characters kill another and they explain that they did this because of the dead characters actions.)

4

What are the three major periods of language study?

Diary Studies

Large Sample Studies

Longitudinal Studies & Experimental Studies

5

When were Diary Studies the rage?

1876 to 1926

6

When were Large Sample Studies the rage?

1926 to 1957

7

When were Longitudinal Studies & Experimental Studies the rage?

1957 to Present

8

What are Diary Studies?

A parent/caretakers writes down what their kids say

9

What are five key words that describe the method of Diary Studies?

Parent Observer

Induction

Unsystematic

Unpredictable

Atheoretical

10

How were diary studies inductive?

The goal was to collect data on observations

Next we sought to interpret this data without assumptions

11

What sort of observational data was collected in diary studies?

Babbling

Word construction

Prepositions

12

How were diary studies atheoretical?

They were trying to learn, not to test any theories

They came into studies with a completely open mind about what they were going to find

13

When was Taine's big year?

1877

14

What did Taine contribute to the study of child language?

He was a French man who wrote about a study of his child

Darwin remembered he had studied his own child too and wrote an associate paper on his own son

15

What was Darwin's big year in regards to the study of language?

1877

16

What was Darwin's son's name? Where did he fit in with Darwin's other children?

William

The first of 10 children

17

At between what ages did Darwin study his son's language development?

Birth to 21 months

18

What was the name of the paper Darwin wrote about his son's language development?

"Biological sketch of an Infant"

19

What did Darwin add to the study of child language?

Gave the study of child language acquisition some credibility

20

What was Stern & Stern's contribution to the study of child language?

Der Kindersprache

The first book on child language

21

What was Stern & Stern's big year?

1907

22

What was the Pedagogical Seminary's contribution to child language studies?

It was the first journal to publish several articles on the subject

23

Who was the editor of thePedagogical Seminary?

G. Stanley Hall

24

What was Leopold's contribution to child language studies?

He wrote 4 volumes on his daughter Hildegard's speech development

25

When were Leopold's big years?

1939 to 1949

26

When was Leopold's work cited a lot and why?

The 1950-60s

It was the most detailed work at the time

27

Who was Margaret Morse Nice?

One of top diary researchers

28

When did Margaret Morse Nice live?

1883-1974

29

What did Margaret Morse Nice study later in life?

Became a ornithologist later in life

30

What was Alexander Chamberlain's contribution to the study of child language?

He was a prominent anthropologist & linguist

He specialized in American Indian linguistics

He published several hundred publication before he died at 49

31

When did Alexander Chamberlain live?

1865-1914

32

What was Louis XIII's contribution to the study of child language?

His court physician kept a daily language diary on him for 29 years

This was the first documented child with a speech sound disorder - a lisp

33

When was Louis XIII born?

1601

34

What do Nativists believe?

That language is innate

35

"______ and______ are so strong in a child that if it learns our language from us, we ______ from the child" (Taine)

Originality

Invention

Learn it

36

What are two critiques often given of diary studies?

They are unsystematic & biased

37

Does Dr Ingram agree with the common critiques of diary studies?

No, he sees this as mostly unfair criticism

38

What is one real weakness of diary studies?

Phonetic transcription not as developed as it is now so there are inconsistencies

39

What are some strengths of diary studies?

They provide rich data

The gave us first insights to how children acquire language

40

What was Piaget “bowwow” study?

It looked at how his son used the word "bowwow" over a 2-3 month span

41

Did Piaget keep diaries of his kids?

Yes

42

How did Piaget's son use "bow wow" at 1;2?

He said bowwow to...

Dog
Hen
Cows
Guinea pig
Cat

43

How did Piaget's son use "bow wow" at 1;3?

Said bowwow to an...

Ant
Tractor

44

How did Piaget's son use "bow wow" at 1;3?

Said

Moo to cows & deer
Kitty for cats
Moo or kitty for pigs

45

What is something unique that diary studies can show us?

How children will specifically avoid certain words

46

What words did Samuel Ingram avoid? What did he say instead?

Ball

Boat

Box

Aiyiyi substituted for a word he did not want to say

47

What is the method for Large Sample Studies?

(5)

Large numbers of subjects

Cross-sectional

Systematic

Small samples per child

Quantitative analysis

48

Diary studies were looking at ______ samples.

Very small

49

Large Sample Studies came during the time when psychology at the time was trying to find ______ data for _______.

Commonality/normative

ALL children

50

Most normative data on children was established in the ______.

1950s

51

Large sample studies usually included ______.

20-30 kids or more

52

What do cross-sectional studies look at? Why?

Children at different ages

It allows you to study different ages during the same small time period

53

How are large study samples systematic?

Same sampling procedure/test is done for each subject

54

What worries Dr. Ingram about large sample studies? What would improve this?

50 sentences is not enough to assess a child's linguistic ability

We should increase the number of samples per child and lessen the sample size

55

Longitudinal studies are better at looking at how children ______.

Change as they grow

56

The field of speech and hearing sciences was formed in the ______.

Big 10 schools (midwest)

57

What were Madorah Smith's big years? Where was she based?

1920-30s

Iowa

58

What did Madorah Smith do?

Large sample studies

Looked at average number of words per age

Gave us a sense of what was normal per age

59

Where were Dorothea McCarthy & Mildred Templin based?

Minnesota

60

When was Templin's big year?

1957

61

Templin was working during the ______.

Peak of large sample studies

62

What was Templin's big experiment?

She looked at 480 children between the ages of 3;0 – 8;0

63

What three things did Templin measure?

Vocabulary Acquisition

MLU (Mean Length of Utterance)

Speech Sound Development

64

What is the Behaviorist's theory of language?

Children learn by being reinforced for what they do

Child vocalizes [da]

Child imitates words will similar sounds, e.g. “doll”

Child associates sound to context

65

When was Behaviorism the dominant viewpoint?

1920-50s

66

Who promoted the behaviorist perspective beside Skinner? When was his big year?

Bloomfield

1933

67

Chomsky said it was better to study ______ than to study _______.

One language in depth

100 languages superficially

68

What were the downfalls of large sample studies?

(4)

Linguistically naïve (Only looked at few parameters of language: consonants, vocab, and length)

Grouped data (Not enough data to represent a full brain,
doesn't get at the depth of language learning)

Superficial

Atheoretical

69

What were the benefits to large sample studies?

Norms

Extensive group data

Measurement

70

What did David Pearlmacher do?

Taught himself fluent German but having lunch with a german professor once a week for 9 months

71

What was the usual method to Longitudinal & Experimental Studies?

3 children

Regular longitudinal visits

Audio recorded

Transcribed (handwritten in early studies; now entered into computer files)

72

When was Brown's big year?

1973

73

What were the names of the three children that Brown studied?

Adam, Eve, Sarah

74

Why was Sarah added to Brown's study?

Because Adam & Eve were so different

75

In Brown's study...Who was the fastest learner? Who was the slower learner? Who was the most interesting to researchers?

Eve was faster learner

Sarah was slowest learner, but her morphology was very interesting to researchers

76

When was Bloom's big year?

1970

77

Who were the three kids that Bloom studied?

Eric, Gia, Kathryn

78

Who published more studies: Bloom or Brown? Who is more famous? Why?

Bloom published more studies than Brown

Brown is more famous because he allowed others to borrow his research

79

Where did Brown study/teach?

Columbia University

80

Who did Bloom study? When did she start?

Her own daughter Allison Bloom

Started recording her at age two

81

What was Bloom's book called? What was it about?

"One Word at a Time"

First words and word combinations

82

What did Allison Bloom do?

She sued her mother as an adult for invading her privacy as a child

83

When was Braine's big year?

1963

84

What were the names of the three children that Braine studied?

Gregory, Andrew, Steven

85

What does CHILDES stand for?

"Child Data Exchange System"

86

What is the CHILDES Database?

A massive archive of child language studies

There are also algorithms that allow you to compare different aspects of data

87

How do Italian and American kids differ in there acquisition of the phoneme /v/? Why?

Italian children acquire it early; American children acquire it late.

/v/ is in a lot of child-specific Italian words

88

Child Language is ______, ______, offers _____, and is _____.

Inductive

Data oriented

Lean interpretations

Constructionist

89

Why does the Child Language approach offer lean interpretations?

It assumes that kids are working hard to learn language (Not so much that it's a struggle but that it takes time)

It assumes that kids don't understand more much more than what they are actually saying

90

Why is the Child Language approach considered Constructionist?

It believes that that kids go through stages of language learning

91

What journal is associated with the Child Language approach?

The Journal of Child Language

92

Language Acquisition is _________________.

(5)

Deductive

Theory oriented

Offers rich interpretations

Maturationist

Needs a large linguistic understanding

93

What journal is associated with the Language Acquisition approach?

Language Acquisition

94

How do children learn?

Innate knowledge

Linguistic input

Correction

95

Who were two individuals who believe that kids are born with innate knowledge?

Chomsky

Bates

96

Who provided the "other one spoon” example?

Braine

97

Is correction a main ways kids learn language?

No