1-3 - Prelinguistic Development: Production Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1-3 - Prelinguistic Development: Production Deck (55):
0

How does Maturation affect language development?

The infant doesn't need much more maturation to hear but need tons of maturation in order to speak

There are major changes to the vocal track during the first 6 months of life

1

What is the going hypothesis on learning and language development?

The infant has to know something about the language they are going to hear

2

What are two hypotheses on infant language perception?

Former: Infants are born with limited perceptual ability

Current: Infants are born with the ability to perceive more and possible all speech sounds

3

Why was it believed that infants are born with limited perceptual ability? When did our belief in this change?

Assumed because they didn't do much of anything

People started asking questions in the 1960s

When this was seen as an empirical issue (we may actually be able to test this)

4

How did we learn that infants are born with the ability to perceive more and possibly all speech sounds?

Once we started testing infants empirically

5

What are three methods for studying infant language perception?

Sucking rate

Heart rate

Head turn

6

Which is the most common method for studying infant speech perception?

Sucking Rate

7

At what age is the Sucking Rate method used?

< 0;6

8

How does the Sucking Rate Method work?

Sucking is rewarded by increasing the audio stimulus

Increase in sucking -> more stimulus
Decrease in sucking -> less stimulus

9

At what age is the Heart Rate method used?

< 0;6

10

What are some issues with the Heart Rate method?

Didn't work out so well because heart rate can change for so many reasons

You would need an enormous amount of infants to test in order to find consistency

11

At what age is the Head Turn method used?

0;6+

12

The Habituation Paradigm is a basic property of the _____.

Central nervous system (CNS)

13

What is habituation?

You start tuning out the stimulus

14

______ leads to habituation.

Repetition

15

What is dishabituation?

Tuning your attention to a stimulus

(You get a new interesting stimulus)

16

______ leads to dishabituation.

New stimuli

17

What did Eilers study? What did Eimas study?

Eilers = Spanish/English bilabial stops

Eimas = English bilabial stops

18

Who did Eimas et al study?

26 infants at 0;1

26 infants at 0;4

19

When was Eimas et al's big year?

1971

20

What method did Eimas et al use?

Measured sucking rate

21

What stimuli did Eimas et al use?

/pa/

/ba/

22

What is the universal theory?

That infants can make fine phonetic discriminations

23

What results did Eimas et al find?

There was a difference in sucking rate when phonemes were switched

Thus infants can make fine phonetic discriminations

24

Who did Eilers et al study?

8 infants from Spanish speaking homes

8 infants from English speaking homes

25

When was Eilers et al's big year?

1979

26

What stimuli did Eilers et al use?

/pa/ vs/ /ba/ in English

/pa/ vs/ /ba/ in Spanish

(English /p/ and the Spanish /p/ differ slightly)

27

What were the ages of the infants in Eilers et al's study?

0;6-0;8

28

What were Eilers et al's results for English infants?

Distinguished 92% of the English /p/ and /b

Distinguished 42% of the Spanish /p/ and /b/

29

What method did Eilers et al use?

Head turn

30

How did Eilers et al interpret the discrepancy between the English & Spanish results?

That maybe the difference between English phonemes is found more commonly found across languages

Perhaps the Spanish phonemic difference is more subtle and harder to perceive

31

What were Eilers et al's results for Spanish infants?

Distinguished 86% of the English /p/ and /b/

Distinguished 80% of the Spanish /p/ and /b/

32

When was Walker & Tees' big year?

1984

33

What was Eilers et al's conclusion?

Some sounds may be harder to perceive than others

Infants may not be about to perceive absolutely all sounds

(Still the overwhelming evidence seems to prove the universal theory)

34

What stimuli did Walker & Tees use?

Hindi dental vs. retroflex stops

Salish [k'] vs. [q'] ( ['] means glottalized)

These are all sounds that native English speakers cannot distinguish

35

Who did Walker & Tees study?

English "speaking" infants between the ages of 0;6-1;0

36

What method did Walker & Tees use?

Head turning

37

What were Walker & Tees' results for ages 0;6- 0;8?

95%: Perception of Hindi Differences

80%: Perception of Salish Differences

38

What were Walker & Tees' results for ages 0;8 - 0;10?

68%: Perception of Hindi Differences

52%: Perception of Salish Differences

39

What were Walker & Tees' results for ages 0;10 – 0;12?

20%: Perception of Hindi Differences

10%: Perception of Salish Differences

40

What did Walker & Tees conclude?

The universal theory is accurate

Ability for non-native sounds is lost around 0;10

41

At what "stage" of language development did Walker & Tees see their results drop off?

At the same point that the infants start developing speech

42

What did Juszyk find?

Infants perceive wide range of speech vowels & consonants

43

When was Juszyk's big year?

1997

44

Juszyk found that infants prefer their native language from _____.

Birth

45

Juszyk found that infants prefer their mother’s voice from _____.

Birth

46

Juszyk found that infants prefer frequent phonotactics from _____.

0;9

47

Juszyk found that infants prefer their own names from _____.

0;4

48

What is the Perceptual Assimilation Model?

That we assimilate non-native sounds to those that are similar to our native language

E.g. Japanese speakers with English /r/ /l/

E.g. English speakers with Zulu clicks

49

What are phonotactics?

Allowed phoneme combinations

50

What did Jusczyk write about in his book?

That infants only hear about 15% of words in isolation. The rest is heard during continuous speech.

This seems to help the child develop phonemic structure of the language

51

Who came up with the Perceptual Assimilation Model?

Best

52

Who studied Phonological Deafness?

Doupoux & Peperkamp

53

What did Doupoux & Peperkamp find?

That infants form prelexical representations around 1;0

After this point the infant is so tuned into all the elements of language that they ignore the rest

54

What were the two words used in the Phonological Deafness study?

Japanese [ebzo] vs. [ebuzo] (voiceless vowels)