2 Amino acids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2 Amino acids Deck (86):
0

G-

Non polar

Gly- glycine- only non chiral AA

1

A-

Non polar

Ala-Alanine- has 3 carbons

2

V-

Non polar

Val- Valine- branched chain AA

3

L-

Non polar

Leu-Leucine- branches chain AA

4

I-

Non polar

Ile- isoleucine- branched chain AA

5

P-

Non polar

Pro- Proline- only non flexible AA

6

M-

Met- Methionine- sulfur AA

7

Amino acids with methyl group as side chain

Alanine

8

Amino acids forms ring with Nitrogen and side group

Proline

9

F-

Aromatic

Phe- Phenylalanine

Aromatic AA

10

Y-

Aromatic

Tyr- tyrosine- has an OH group

11

W-

Aromatic

Trp- Tryptophan

Largest letter and tryptophan. Is the largest AA

12

One letter code for phenylalanine

F

13

S-

Polar uncharged

Ser- Serine- alcohol group

14

T-

Polar uncharged

Thr- threonine- alcohol group

15

C-

Polar uncharged

Cys- cysteine- sulfur group

16

N-

Polar uncharged

Asn- asparagine- amide of Asp

* has amide group so this shows N group

17

Q-

Polar uncharged

Gln- Glutamine- Amide of Glu

18

D-

Negatively charged

Asp- Aspartate "asparDick acid"

19

E-

Negative charged

Glu-glutamate

20

K-

Positively charges

Lys- Lysine- amine side group

21

R-

Positively charges

Arg-arginine- guanadino side group

22

H-

Positively charged

His- Histidine- neutral at pH 7.4, negatively charged only at more acidic pH's

23

Most amino acids are composed of:

L- amino acids

24

What is zwitterion ?

A molecule with equal numbers of positive and negative charges at the same time

25

What is the side group on G?

-H

26

Which of the following amino acids is aromatic?

F

27

Which amino acid is the most abundant in our blood?

Glutamine

28

What is the one letter code for the aromatic amino acid with the largest molecular weight?

W

29

Which of the following amino acids has an acidic side group?

E

30

The amino acid S has an alcohol on it side group

T

31

What is the one letter abbreviation for tryptophan?

W

32

C has a side group of

Sulfur

33

D has a side group of

Acid

34

F has a side group of

Aromatic

35

K has a side group of

Basic

36

Which amino acid has a hydrogen as it site group?

Glycine

37

At what pH with glycine make a good buffer

2.34

38

At what pH would there be about a 50 to 50 make sure of glycine with a zero charge and glycine with a -1 charge?

9.60

39

For the peptide EHWAGLRPG, what is the closest charge at pH 7.4?

0

40

What is the configuration of the citrulline shown in the attached image

L

41

At pH of eight, what is the closest charge that would be on histidine?

0

42

At pH of four, what is the closest charge that would be on histidine?

+1

43

What pH would there be about a 50:50 ratio of lysine with a positive one charge in the zero charge?

2.34

44

What is the PI for glycine

5.97

45

At what pH with glycine make a good buffer?

9.60

46

DNA has a phosphoric acid backbone, which is why DNA is called deoxyribonucleic acid. At the pH of cells, do you need to be in it's phosphate state and that's very negatively charged. DNA is wrapped around histone proteins, which are very positively charged. What amino acids would you expect to be providing those positive charges?

H, K, and R

47

Glycine has pKa's of 2.34 and 9.69. At what pH is glycine fully proton acted?

Less than 2.34

48

Glycine structure

Non polar aliphatic

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
H****

Glycine

49

Alanine structure

Non polar aliphatic

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH3*****

Alanine

50

Proline structure

Non polar aliphatic

COO-
l
C
/ \.
H2N+ CH2*
l l
*H2C--- CH2*

Proline

51

Valine structure

Non polar aliphatic

COO-
l
H3N+- C -H
l
CH*
/ \
CH3* CH3*

Valine

52

Leucine structure

Non polar aliphatic

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH2*
l
CH*
/ \
CH3 CH3*

Leucine

53

Isoleucine structure

Non polar aliphatic

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
H- C- CH3*
l
CH2*
l
CH3*

Isoleucine

54

Methionine structure

Non polar aliphatic

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH2*
l
CH2*
l
S*
l
CH3*

Methionine- sulfur bases and non polar

55

Phenylalanine structure

Aromatic r groups

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH2
l
---------
/ \
\_________/

Phenylalanine (rings make them more polar)

56

Tyrosine structure

Aromatic R groups

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH2
l
---------
/ \
\_________/
l
OH

Tyrosine***most polar****

57

Tryptophan structure

Aromatic R groups

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH2
l
C= CH
l \
l NH
l____/
---------
/ \
\_________/
Tryptophan

58

Serine structure

Polar uncharged R groups

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH2OH**

Serine

59

Threonine structure

Polar, uncharged R group

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
H- C- OH*
l
CH3*

Threonine

60

Cysteine structure

Polar, uncharged R group

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH2
l
SH

61

Asparagine structure

Polar, uncharged r groups

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH2
l
C
/ \
H2N O

Asparagine

62

Glutamine structure

Polar, uncharged R groups

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH2
l
CH2
l
C
/ \\
H2N O

Glut amine

63

Aspartate structure

Negatively charged R groups

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH2**
l
COO-**

Aspartate

64

Glutamate structure

Negatively charged R groups

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH2**
l
CH2**
l
COO-**

Glutamate

65

Lysine structure

Positively charges

COO-
l
H3N-C-H
l
CH2
l
CH2
l
CH2
l
CH2
l
+NH3

Lysine - Always + charged


66

Arginine structure

Positively charged

COO-
l
H3N-C-H
l
CH2
l
CH2
l
CH2
l
NH
l
C=+NH2
l
NH2

Arginine - always positive amino acid

67

Histidine structure

Positively charged

COO-
l
H3N+-C-H
l
CH2
l
C----NH
ll \
ll CH
ll //
C-----N
H

Histidine- sometimes positive when in acidic environment

68

Which two amino acids are the only two that carry a negative charge at pH 7.4?

Aspartate and glutamate

69

What is the pH at which one have 10 times more of the acidic or basic form of the drug aspirin?

pKa=3.5

pH=pKa+ log 10( base/ acid)
pH= 3.5 + log10(1/10)

2.5

70

How many acids are nonpolar?

10 non polar

Glycine, alanine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, methionine, proline, leucine, Isoleucine.

GAVPTTMPLI

71

How many amino acids are polar?

10 amino acids are polar

Serine, cysteine threonine, lysine, arginine, histidine, asparagine, glutamine, aspartate, glutamate.

SCYLAHAGAG

72

How do you calculate charges on proteins?

You find the charges of each amino acid in total them up to be the total charge of the protein.

Arginine +1,
Aspartate -1,
glutamate -1,
Lysine has +1

Histidine sometimes +1 at pH less than 6

73

What happens when 2 Cysteine molecules pair together?

The S amino acid undergoes spontaneous oxidation reaction with oxygen.... Forms a

Disulfide bridge- 2 cysteine a link together

74

Desmosome

Made up of 4 lysines and creates a central ring

Large cross-link within the protein to make it stronger. These are found in protein elastin which are found in our skin.

75

Amino acids can act as a buffer within

1 pH unit of its pKa

76

The pI is the pH at which a titratable molecule has

No charge. This is called the isoelectric point.

77

The definition of pI is?

The form that has no net charge

78

At the pK1 the amino acid is:

A 50:50 mixture of protonated vs deportenated carboxylate group

79

What are the two nonstandard amino acids?

Ornithopter and Citrulline

80

Which molecular mutation best describes the defect in sickle cell hemoglobin?

Glu➡️Cal at position 6 of the beta chain

81

Most amino acids will be in what confirmation

Left confirmation

82

Determine the L and D structures by comparing to:

L and D glyceraldehyde molecule

CHO
l
HO- C- H
l
CH2OH
L- Glyceraldehyde
For the R, just switch the H and OH sides

83

What is a zwitterion?

It is a molecule that has both positive and negative charges make it ionic but it is also neutral because these charges cancel each other out.
O
ll
-O-- C
l
H3N+--C-H
l
R
Zwitterion

84

Sickle cell anemia is when:

The -Glu➡️Val (neutral) on position #6 of the beta chain.

Sickle cell causes fibers to turn into Crystal forms and these cause they sell to sickle out.

The cell becomes less negatively charged which makes it less water soluble because it is also less polar.

85

Electrophoresis of sickle cell hemoglobin

The normal hemoglobin will move faster towards a positively charged electrode because the negative is attracted to positive. The sickle cell hemoglobin will move slower towards the positively charged electrode because the sickle cell hemoglobin is less negatively charged so it won't move this quickly.