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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Review Deck (81):
0

The primary molecule that transfers energy in the cell is

ATP

1

Proteins catabolize into

Amino acids

2

Complex carbs break down into

Simple sugars

3

Triglycerides break down into

3 Fatty acids and glycerol

4

How much energy does protein container

4kcal/ g

5

How much energy do carbs contain

4kcal/g

6

How much energy do fats contain

9kcal/g

7

How much energy does alcohol contain

7 kcal/g

8

What is catabolism?

It is the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules


Releases energy as ATP

9

What is anabolism?

It is putting small molecules together to form big molecules


Uses energy as ATP

10

Why are proteins hetero polymers

They contain 20 different amino acids

11

How do you proteins breakdown

Proteins break amide bonds (in stomach and intestines) and turn into separate amino acids

12

Glycogen is what macromolecule

Carbohydrate

13

Glycogen is a polymer and breaks down into what monomer

Glucose

14

What is a covalent bond

It is a bond where the electrons are shared

15

Most fats are stored as

Triglycerides

16

Triglycerides break down into what different parts

Glycerol- which has three carbon backbone

3 fatty acids- Palmitate (saturated)
Stearate (saturated)
Oleate (unsaturated- one carbon double bond/ alkene)

17

When proteins are digested they are broken down into free

Amino acids

18

Which one of the following molecules is considered to be a macromolecule

Protein

Complex carbohydrate

Triglycerides

DNA and RNA

19

What three fuels do we consume?

Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins

20

What three other nutritional requirements do we consume but get no calories from

Vitamins
Minerals
Water

We need these in order to be able to break down the fuels that we consume

21

Xenobiotics

Non-nutrient chemicals such as toxins that we need to excrete

22

Most of our reserve energy is what

Fat

23

Why is glycogen the most important reserve energy

Our brain and red blood cells use glucose almost exclusively

24

Glycogen is used to store sugar where

Primarily in the liver

25

What is used only by the muscle and has .4%

Muscle glycogen

26

Where is glycogen stored and used primarily for the brain

Liver glycogen

27

What is used primarily by muscle but only during aerobic exercise


Hints this is the biggest storage of energy

Fat 15kg (85%)

28

What is used during starvation

Protein 6 Kg 14.5%

29

Why is energy mostly stored in fat instead of glycogen

That is a very dense way of storing energy because adipose tissue has a small amount of water and glycogen contains four times the amount of water than it does glycogen

30

Why does glycogen bind to four times as much water

Glycogen is polar with a hydroxyl group so it will bind with four times as much water

31

What is a type of homopolymer

Starch

32

Men need at least how much body fat

3%

33

Women need at least how much body fat

10-12%

34

What is the BMI average, ideal and obese numbers

Average is 20-25
Ideal 18-24.9
Obese over 30

35

What is the BMI formula


BMI= weight(kg)/height (m) ^2.
=704x lbs/Height (in) ^2

36

What is basal metabolic rate

BMR- Energy expenditure needed to maintain basic physiological function

BMR=24x body weight in kg

Lbs/2.2=kg

37

Factors that affect the BMR

Gender
Body temperature
Environment temperature
Thyroid status
Pregnancy and lactation
Age
Diet induced thermogenesis

38

What is the daily energy expenditure (DEE) formula

BMR+ physical activity (24hrs)

(Kg weight/24)+ physical activity

39

How many calories would we have to drop from our caloric intake in order to lose 2 pounds a week

1000kcal/day

40

1 lb of fat =

3500 kcal

41

Coke has how many calories

100 kcal/ 8 oz

42

Why is eliminating carbohydrates from your diet a bad idea

People on low sugar diet tend to eat too many calories of fat which can lead to cardiovascular problems

43

What percentage of carbohydrate should be in our diet

30-40%

44

What are the dietary fiber pros and cons

Pros: it is associated with lower cholesterol and colon cancer rates

Cons: it is a complex carbohydrate but we can't digest it and therefore it has no dietary calories

45

Are saturated fatty acid and cholesterol needed in our diet

No because we can make our own

46

Why are unsaturated fat essential

Essential fatty acid are ones that we can't make on our own so they must be in our diet

47

Four very important essential fatty acids

a-linoleic: omega 6 from plants
a-linilenic: omega 3 from plants
Eicosapentaenoic acid: omega 3 fish
Docosahexaenoic acid: omega 3 fish

48

Specific amino acid deficiencies

Vegetarian diets that consist mainly of wheat corn rice tend to be deficient in lysine

Beans lentils and other legumes low in the methionine

49

How many amino acids are essential nutrients

9-11 of the 20 amino acids are essential

50

Amino acids also serve as what

Nitrogen source for nonessential amino acid's for nucleic acid and other nitrogen containing molecules such as hemes

51

What are the essential nutrients for protein function

Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Water

52

Vitamins are

Organic molecules needed for enzyme function that we either can't make or can't make enough

53

How many amino acids must be in our diet

Half of amino acids must be in our diet and the other half we can make ourselves

54

Vitamin A

It is used for vision

Deficiency causes night blindness

Vitamin a is found in carrots broccoli squash Sweet potatoes leafy vegetables liver eggs butter fish cheese

55

Thiamine- B 1

Is needed for decarboxylation reactions

Deficiency causes Beri Beri, edema, heart failure,
wernicke Korsakoff(alcoholism)

Found in cereal grains beans nuts milk brewers yeast

56

Riboflavin B2

It is needed for FADH2

FAD helps makes ATP

Deficiency causes dermatitis and tongue inflammation

Found in milk meat wheat green veggies fish

57

Niacin B3

Needed for NADH

NAD H helps make ATP

Deficiency causes pellagra-diarrhea and dermatitis and dementia and death

Found in milk meat tomato turnip greens collards

58

Pantothenic acid B 5

Needed for CoA formation

CoA is Acetyl carrier

Deficiency causes emotional problems and gastrointestinal disturbances

Sound in liver eggs yeast and milk

59

Pyridoxal Doxil phosphate B6

Needed for amino acid deamination

Deficiency causes dermatitis apathy irritability susceptibility to infections and convulsions in infants

Found in eggs and liver and east and peas and beans and milk

60

Biotin B7

Needed for carboxylation's and synthesis of fats

Deficiency causes dermatitis

Caused by eating raw eggs -avidin protein

61

Folic acid B8

Needed for heme synthesis and nucleic acid bases and one carbon transfers

Deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and neural tube defect

62

Cyanocobalamine B12

Needed for odd fatty acid and Folic acid's

Deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia

63

Ascorbic acid vitamin C

Needed for collagen formation

Deficiency causes scurvy

64

Calciferol vitamin D

Needed for calcium absorption

Deficiency causes rickets

65

a- Tocopherol vitamin E

Needed for antioxidant activity

Deficiency causes sterility, muscular dystrophy and I damage and brain lesions

66

Phylloquinone. Vitamin K

Needed for blood clotting

Deficiency causes hemorrhage

67

Fat soluble vitamins

Vitamins ADEK

68

Water-soluble vitamins

Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
B6
Pantothenic acid
Biotin
Folic acid
B12
Vitamin c

69

Trace elements



12
Found in diet small amount

Mg
V
Cr
Mo
Mn
Fe
Co
Ni
Zn
Se
Cu
I

70

Bulk elements


10

H
Na
K
Ca
C
N
O
P
S
Cl

71

Fluoride

Fluoride deficiency causes cavities

High fluoride causes modeling

72

Iron deficiency

Needed for hemes and cytochrome


Deficiency causes anemia and fatigue

73

Iodine deficiency

Needed for thyroid hormone synthesis

Deficiency causes goiters

74

Differentiate between catabolism and anabolism

Catabolism breaks down molecules and anabolism synthesizes molecules

75

How many calories are released in the metabolism of carbohydrates

4 kcal/g

76

How many calories are released in the metabolism of ethanol

7 kcal/g

77

How many calories are released from the metabolism of protein

4 kcal/g

78

How many calories are released from the metabolism of fats

9 kcal/g

79

List the fat-soluble vitamins

Vitamins ADEK

80

Proteins are used for

Structural support
Motor activity
Enzymes
Receptors
Transport