Chapter 3 Fasting state Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Fasting state Deck (49):
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What occurs in the fasting state

Glucagon is high
Glycogen breakdown
Fat utilization
Protein breakdown
Brain uses glucose
Muscle uses fat

1

In the fasting state what do the levels in the blood look like

⬇️glucose
⬇️insulin
⬆️Glucagon

2

The fasting state is also known as

Basal state

3

When does the fasting state occur

This state occur several hours after the last meal

4

What secrete glucagon when the glucose and insulin levels drop

The pancreas secrete glucagon

5

What happens when the pancreas secretes glucagon

Once the glucagon has been secreted this induces the liver to break down stored glycogen into free glucose

6

Pancreas secretes Glucagon➡️liver breaks down glycogen to glucose➡️

Once the glucose has been freed the glucose leaves the liver and helps maintain blood glucose levels

7

Pancreas secretes Glucagon➡️liver breaks down glycogen to glucose➡️glucose goes to blood➡️

Glucose is then used by the brain for energy needs ....burn down to CO2+ATP

**brain will have plenty of ATP

8

Pancreas secretes Glucagon➡️liver breaks down glycogen to glucose➡️glucose goes to blood➡️RBCs....

The red blood cells breakdown the glucose and turn it into lactate

9

Pancreas secretes Glucagon➡️liver breaks down glycogen to glucose➡️glucose goes to blood➡️RBCs turn glucose to lactate➡️

The lactate released from the red blood cells are sent back to the liver where it is converted from lactate to glucose

10

Pancreas secretes Glucagon➡️liver breaks down glycogen to glucose➡️glucose goes to blood➡️RBCs turn glucose to lactate➡️ lactate sent to liver to be turned into glucose➡️

Glucose is released back to the blood

11

Between 12 to 24 hours after fast is started where does the blood glucose come from

The blood glucose is coming from protein is taken from the muscle so the muscle is atrophying

12

Amino acids are being sent from the muscle to

Amino acid sent from the muscle to the liver through the blood since they are water-soluble

13

Wednesday amino acids are taken to deliver what happens to them in the blood

That amino acids are deaminated into urea

14

Once the amino acids are converted into urea....

Urea - N+ will be carried away as waste and carbons made into glucose (gluconiagenesis)

15

Once the urea is broken down and carbons are then made into glucose....

Glucose leaves the liver and supplies the blood with the glucose it needs to support the brain and red blood cells

16

During the fasting state we use that coming from

Adipose tissue

17

Triglycerides are broken down from adipose tissue because

Because glucagon will simulate hormone sensitive lipase to break down the triglycerides into glycerol

18

Turning triglycerides into glycerol can be used to make

This makes glucose in the liver also known as gluconeogenesis

19

Fatty acid from triglycerides in the adipose tissue can be

Can be used as energy for muscles and liver

20

Protein in the muscles are being used to break down into

Amino acids also known as gluconeogenesis to make my glucose

21

This starvation state is where fatty acid's from adipose tissue turn into

Keytone bodies which are highly acidic so they are less desirable but under starvation conditions very useful source of energy

22

Keytone bodies in the starvation state can be used by

Keytone bodies can be used by the brain as a source of energy even though the brain prefers glucose but it will use it under starvation condition

23

The glycerol that does come from the adipose tissue is used to

Glycerol that does come from adipose tissue is small but it is enough to make glucose that can be released to the blood but mainly used by red blood cells because they can only use glucose and no ketones

24

Red blood cells use

Glucose

25

During the starvation state the brain will use

Ketone bodies

26

During the starvation state what happens to glucose levels

Glucose drops but not dramatically because of gluconeogenesis, lactate, amino acids, glycerol ,and fat

27

What will happen to plasma levels after several days of starvation

Glucose levels will lower and the Keytone bodies will greatly increase to make up for the loss of glucose and the fatty acid levels will increase by utilizing fat storage

28

In the urea what happens when glucose is high

When glucose is high then the nitrogen output is low

29

In the urea after fasting 12 hours what will you see

Putting out more nitrogen due to the burning of protein

30

After starvation for three days what will happen to urea

Depending on fat solubility so decrease in protein degradation

31

What happens to urea after starvation for 5 to 6 weeks

Not much protein is left and dependent on fat and there's a decrease in nitrogen

32

How many types of nitrogen waste are there

4

33

The types of nitrogen waste are

Ammonia- made in kidneys

***Urea- made in liver and filtered by kidneys(most N found)

Utica acid- from breakdown of purines and caffeine

Creatine- made in muscles(interesting form found in urine)

34

Ammonia in nitrogen waste

NH4 is about 3%

35

Urea in urine

6%


H2N-C-NH2
ll
I

36

Uric acid in urine

11% and not very water soluble

Benzene ring with 2N and 1=O with a Pentene ring with 2N and 1=O

37

Creatine in urine

Pentene ring with 3N , 1=O, 1=NH, 1-CH3 extending group

38

Creatine phosphate is found in

It is found in muscles and used as molecule to quickly replenish ATP

The nonenzymatic decomposition of creatine is simply eliminated as creatinine.

39

Creatine phosphate degradation

The degeneration of creatine phosphate into creatine creates a molecule that cannot be used by other pathways so it will be released and filtered by the kidneys

40

Between meals with little to no glucose is entering the blood from the intestines the major source of glucose will be from

Glycogen

41

Increase your urea output usually indicates an increased use of

Amino acids

42

The starvation state is the same as the fasting state but

Keytone bodies become main source of energy

43

During the fasting state amino acids are converted into which molecule

Glucose

44

Keytone bodies are made in which organ and from which precursor molecule

In the liver from fatty acid's

45

During the fasting state what happens to insulin levels compared to the Fed state

Insulin levels drop

46

Doing the fasting state what is the primary fuel for the brain

Glucose

47

When amino acids are burned what waste product is excreted by the kidneys

Urea

48

3 types of ketone bodies

B- hydroxybutyrate
Acetoacetate
**used by muscle & NS**

Acetone
**expired in breath and not metabolized**