Chapter 2 Fed State Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Fed State Deck (31):

Complex carbohydrates are digested down to-------- in the-------

Digested down to simple sugars(glucose) in the mouth and small intestines


Triglycerides are digested down to ------ in the-----

Digested down to glycerol and three fatty acid in the small intestine


Proteins are digested down to---------- in the-------

Digested down to free amino acids in the stomach and small intestine


Glucose starts off absorbed in the intestinal lining and is absorbed by

Glucose enters the blood and induces the pancreas to secrete insulin


Triglycerides are free-floating fat in the intestines that are released to----and get turned into----

Released to circulatory system

Intestinal cells absorb free fatty acid and reassemble them as triglycerides into particles called chylomicrons


Proteins starting off in the intestines is turned into

Protein is turned into amino acids and the free amino acids into the blood


In the Fed state, absorption in the gut has what concentrations

⬆️ insulin


What to tissues do not need insulin to absorb glucose and will continue to absorb available glucose at all times

The brain

Red blood cells


In the Fed state, what does the brain do

The brain uses glucose almost exclusively and burns most of it all the way to carbon dioxide and water

Glucose➡️Acetyl CoA➡️TCA➡️ CO2 and H2O Or ATP


In the Fed state, the red blood cells

The red blood cells use glucose almost exclusively but since they don't have mitochondria they burn it only as far as pyruvate then converted to lactate



Muscles in the Fed state will do what

Glucose is absorbed into muscle only when insulin permits the entry

Muscle will use glucose when there's plenty of it because glucose increases insulin and insulin is required to absorb glucose into the muscle


Active muscle burns glucose to

Aerobically - CO2

Glucose➡️Acetyl CoA➡️ TCA➡️CO2 and H2O or ATP

anaerobic-glucose ➡️lactate

Non active muscle :
Glucose ➡️Glycogen


Non-active muscle will do what with glucose

Stores glucose as glycogen when muscle is not being used


In the liver glucose is used

Glucose can freely enter and leave the liver that can only be used by the liver when insulin is high

It needs insulin in order to do something with the glucose


In the liver the amino acids

Amino acids are taken up so liver can produce its own proteins the excess amino acids are converted to fat


The glucose in the liver can go three different pathways

Glucose➡️acetyl CoA ....turns into (1)TCA or (2)Triglycerides

1. Glucose➡️️Acetyl CoA➡️TCA cycle ➡️ CO2 and H2O or ATP

2.Glucose➡️Acetyl CoA➡️triglycerides(fat) ➡️ VLDL(cholesterol)



What is a chylomicron

Form of triglyceride


Chylomicrons and VLDL meet up and do you what in the Fed state

Chylomicrons from the intestines and VLDL from the liver (FA+glycerol) are released by liquid particles at the surface of adipose tissue


The fatty added acid are taken into the adipose tissue and

Glucose is taken into the adipose tissue and

Absorbed fatty acids are reassembled and stored as triglycerides

Insulin promotes the uptake of glucose in the conversion of glycerol for Triglyceride fat synthesis

Puts it all back in together again inside adipose tissue as triglycerides


Fat cells can take in what

Fat cells can take excess glucose directly and converted into fat


Under what influence does the adipose tissue you take in glucose

Glucose is taken up by the adipose tissue under the influence of insulin

however insulin is only use for synthesis of glycerol which is added to fatty acid's to make triglycerides inside adipose tissue for storage


Most tissues in the Fed state take up

Most tissues take up free amino acids as well as glucose and fats

1 option:Amino acids➡️protein synthesis OR to make important compounds
2nd option: Amino acids➡️️TCA Cycle➡️ATP and CO2+H2O
*muscles prefer to burn glucose first if it is available


Red blood cells most only do what process

Red blood cells do glycolysis and use glucose for energy


Triglycerides are digested into which components

Fatty acid same glycerol


When glucose enters the blood how does this affect the pancreas

It increases the release of insulin


Which particles carry fat in the blood after absorb room of day



Which biomolecules is used as fiel by the red blood cells



Glucose is absorbed by muscle under which condition

When insulin is high


In the fed state what occurs

Insulin is high
Glycogen synthesis
Fat synthesis
Protein synthesis
Brain uses glucose
Muscle uses glucose


In the Fed state where is energy being stored

Organs like the liver. Muscle, and adipose tissue


️TCA means