Flashcards in 2Rings And Variants Deck (43):
Aldehyde + alcohol
Ketone + alcohol
Which two groups react to form a hemiacetal on the glucose molecule?
The alcohol on carbon #5 and the aldehyde of carbon#1 react since they are closest to rah other and form the ring.
Alpha Hemiactetal is due to:
The OH group pointing down on carbon #1
Beta Hemiacetal is due to:
The OH group is pointing up
What form is 99% of glucose in?
Ring structure alpha or beta
Mostly the beta conformation
Which of the following is an anomeric pair?
(Differs only in configuration at hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon)
Alpha-D-glucose and Beta-D- glucose
Glucose is the oxidizing sugar that is reduced into:
Glucose turns into Glucitol by:
Reducing an aldehyde into an alcohol on c#1
Glucose turns into gluconate by:
Oxidizing the aldehyde group to Carboxylic acid...this would be oxidized sugar
Sugars that can undergo oxidation are called:
Diabetes test: copper turned brick red with urine...copper was reduced because the sugar became oxidized
Sugars with aldehyde groups are...
Oxidizes other substances and gains electrons so the oxidation state will decrease.
The oxidize sugar will gain oxygen and release hydrogen.
The aldehyde functional group allows the sugar to act as a reducing agent. You aldehyde can be oxidized via a redox reaction in which another compound is reduced. Thus, a reducing sugars one that reduces certain chemicals.
The reducing sugar will gain hydrogen and lose oxygen
Glucose turns into gluconate
Fructose is a _____ sugar
Fructose can be a reducing sugar because it can isomerize to glucose or mannose, this happens very slowly at room or body temperature but it is very rapid when heated in the test tube.
Can rearrange to be a reducing sugar.
D-glucose is called a reducing sugar because it undergoes an oxidation – reduction reaction at the anomeric carbon. What are the products of this reaction is:
D- Ribose structure
H- C - OH
H- C -OH
Removed OH on C#2
H- C- H
H- C- OH
H- C- OH
Carboxylic acid on carbon #6
Oxidize carbon #1 and Carboxylic acid where aldehyde used to be and can form ring
Ring formed from Carboxylic acid on carbon #1
Glucuronates are very useful in helping to excrete:
Less than water soluble molecules
They increase water solubility of target molecules to facilitate excretion from the body.
Ex: Bilirubin- a break down product from heme and can conjugate to Glucoronate to increase water solubility
It is water-soluble in a conjugated form that is attached to two glucuronates to the Bilirubin molecule
It is the non-conjugated form that is usually found bound to albumin in the blood
Oxidize sugars are also known as
Modified acidic sugar:
Has nitrogens instead of oxygens on the sugar rings.
Ex: Beta-D- Galactosamine
Has NH2 in position #2
and Beta-D- Mannosamine
Has mannose in N #2
Common sugar abbreviations
Glucuronic acid. GlcA
N-acetyl galactose amine. GalNAc
N-acetyl glucosamine GlcNAc
Which of the following monosaccharides is not a carboxylic acid?
Which of the following is anomeric pair?
Same structure but OH group flipped to opposite sides
Alpha-D- glucose and Beta-D-glucose
Which of the following sugars contain a Ketone?
Which seven of the following sugars are monosaccharides?
Which of the following sugars contains only glucose?
Which of the following sugars would test negative to the reducing sugar test?
What is the configuration of D – glyceraldehyde?
Which of the following is a five carbon sugar?
Which of the following is an epimer of glucose?
Fructose contains which of the following functional groups?
Keytone and alcohol
If a urine sample of a diabetic patient has copper (II) nitrate added to it, is heated and as a result a brick red precipitate forms, what most likely happened?
Glucose is oxidized
The reduced form of glucose is named?
When glucose forms a ring, what happened?
One of the alcohol groups reacted with the aldehyde
Which of the following is contains glucose (Alpha 1–4) bond?
The enzyme lactase, found in our intestine, breaks which type of bond?
Which of the following bond is found in glycogen?