[2] Class 5- Theisen Fundametal Of Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in [2] Class 5- Theisen Fundametal Of Nutrition Deck (141)
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31

3-10 monosaccharides

Oligosaccharide

32

Ex of oligosaccharide:

Glycolipids and glycoproteins

33

>10 monosaccharides

Polysaccharides

34

Ex of polysaccharides:

Glycogen, starch, cellulose

35

Diastereomers that differ in configuration of only one stereogenic (chiral) center

Epimers

36

What is more stable open-chain or ring structure?

Ring structure

37

Monosaccharides exist in sol'n mainly as _____ structure?

Ring

38

How are glycosidic bonds formed?

By the hydrolysis of starch

39

A polysaccharide of glucose residues linked w/ a alpha 1,4 glycosidic bond

Starch amylose

40

Amylose w/ addition of alpha-1,6 glycosidic branch

Amylopectin

41

Major plant polysaccharide

Unbranded polymer of glucose residues joined by ß-1,4 linkages, allowing to form very long and straight chains

Cellulose

42

Why does cellulose/starch and glycogen favor bent structure ?

More suitable for storage

43

Major component of DNA

Deoxyaldose

44

Components of glycoproteins and glycolipids

Important in cell signaling, adhesion

Acetylated Amino sugars

45

Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Present in cell membrane and in ECM

Acidic sugars

46

Constituted the gangliosides in oligodendrocytes of NS

Sugar esters

47

Food additives, gains importance in uncontrolled diabetes leading to cataracts and peripheral neuropathy; used in synthesis of lipids

Sugar alcohols

48

Why is high fructose corn syrup so fattening?

It bypasses a major regulatory step in glycolysis, entering at step 5 [DHAP=easily converted to glycerol-becomes fat easily] This disrupts fuel metabolism and increases productions of lipids since DAG can be converted to glycerol-3-phosphate and then into triacylglycerols

49

What is the catch w/ the glycemic index?

I only measures BG levels and b/c it is low in glucose doesnt mean it is low in kcal

50

Are artificial sweeteners on Glycemic index?

Yes and theyre > 0

51

What can stimulate insulin release

Modified sugar alcohols

52

What's the good sweetener?

Stevia 0 kcal and natural sugar

53

Water insoluble biomolecules that're highly soluble in organic solvents
Membrane constituents
FA are key constituents

Lipids

54

_________ properties of lipids are d/t the FAs

Hydrophobic

55

What contributes hydrophobic properties f lipid?

FAs

56

What're building blocks of phospholipids and glycolipids, components of biological membranes?

FAs

57

What type of FA have highest energy?

Saturated FA

58

Critical enzyme for lipid digestion

Lipase

59

Where are FA oxidized to generate ATP?

Mitochondria

60

FA oxidized or reduced?

Oxidized