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Flashcards in 2 disease states Deck (30):
1

diabetic ketoacidosis is...

life threatening complication of severe insulin deficiency

2

diabetic ketoacidosis symptoms

- hyperglycemia
- water loss
- hypokalemia
- altered fat metabolism (production of ketones)

3

hypoglycemia is...

complication of insulin therapy
- blood glucose < 50 mg/dl

4

initial hypoglycemia symptoms

- tachycardia
- palpitations
- sweating
- nervousness

P.N.T.S.

5

untreated hypoglycemia symptoms

- headache
- confusion
- drowsiness
- fatigue

6

severe hypoglycemia symptoms

- seizure
- coma
- death

7

hypoglycemia treatment

TEST GAG REFLEX (so patient doesn't aspirate)
- administer 10-20g of carbs
- severe: IV dextrose, IM glucagon

8

type 1 diabetes

(formerly juvenile onset)

- destruction of pancreas beta cell (responsible for insulin synthesis)

SIGNIFICANT HYPERGLYCEMIA at presentation

9

type 2 diabetes

non-insulin dependent, adult onset
- insulin resistance and/or impaired insulin secretion
- lifestyle modifications!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
- primarily treatment: oral agents
- insulin may be prescribed if not responsive to lifestyle modifications and oral meds

SIGNIFICANT HYPERGLYCEMIA at presentation

10

lipodystrophy

tissue atrophy or hypertrophy

can interfere with insulin absorption

11

gigantism

excessive growth during childhood

GH!

12

acromegaly

excessive growth after puberty

GH!

13

hyperthyroidism treatments (x3)

- treat the cause!
- tapazole (methimazole)
- PTU (propylthiouracil)
- Iodine-131

14

hypothyroidism looks like...

- cretinism
- myxedema
- primary, secondary
- s/s resulting from hyperthyroidism tx

15

hyperthyroidism looks like...

- grave's disease
- plummer's disease (toxic nodular goiter)
-- thyroid carcinoma
- thyrotoxic crisis (thyroid storm)
- pituitary adenoma
- overtreatment of hypothyroidism

16

grave's disease

thyrotoxicosis, excess T4 and T3

17

hypothyroidism primary cause

thyroid gland disorder

18

hypothyroidism secondary cause

decrease in TSH secretion

19

addison's disease

adrenal insufficiency (hyposecretion)

20

cushing's syndrome

hyperaldosteronism

21

grave's disease looks like

- exopthalmos
- tachycardia), palpitations
- excessive perspiration, heat intolerance
- nervousness, irritability
- weight loss

22

cretinism

hypothyroidism

23

myxedema

hypothyroidism

24

plummer's disease

toxic nodular goiter, hyperthyroidism
- caused by thyroid adenoma
- NO exopthalmos

25

thyrotoxic crisis

- severe thyrotoxicosis
- excessive levels of thyroid hormones

26

myxedema

- severe thyroid deficiency
- exaggerated presentation of hypothyroidism
- coma --> death

27

cretinism

- hypothyroidism in infants
- stunted growth
- dwarfism
- puffy face
- potbelly
- macroglossia
- mental deficiency
- hearing impairment

28

ADH deficiency

treat with vasopressin analog

29

excess free water

treat with AVP antagonist -- ONLY WORKS IN KIDNEYS

30

excess free water looks like

CHF
cirrhosis (osmolality, osmotic pressure messed up)
SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate ADH)

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