2 Endocrine: Non-glucose Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2 Endocrine: Non-glucose Deck (67):
1

posterior pituitary hormones

- oxytocin
- antidiuretic hormone

2

anterior pituitary hormones

- growth hormone
- acth
- tsh
- fsh
- lh
- prolactin

3

endocrine glands

- pineal
- hypothalamus
- pituitary
- thyroid
- parathyroid
- thymus
- adrenal
- pancreas
- ovaries / testes

4

T4

thyroxine

5

T3

triiodothyronine

6

normal range: thyroid stimulating hormone

0.4 - 4.0 mIU/L

7

normal range: T3

100 -200 ng/dL

8

normal range: total T4

4.5 - 11.2 mcg/dL

9

normal range: free T4

0.7 - 1.5 ng/dL

10

myxedema

- severe thyroid deficiency
- exaggerated presentation of hypothyroidism
- coma --> death

11

cretinism

- hypothyroidism in infants
- stunted growth
- dwarfism
- puffy face
- potbelly
- macroglossia
- mental deficiency
- hearing impairment

12

macroglossia

unusually large tongue

13

thyrotoxicosis symptoms

- tachycardia
- angina
- tremors
- insomnia
- hyperthermia
- diaphoresis

14

primary/secondary hypothyroidism treatment

lifelong therapy, thyroid regaining normal function is rare

15

cretinism treatment

PEDS PATIENTS!!

typically treat for 3 years, then delay therapy for 3-4 weeks to see if symptoms return. treat child based on symptoms.

16

hypothyroidism looks like...

- cretinism
- myxedema
- primary, secondary
- resulting from hyperthyroidism tx

17

hyperthyroidism looks like...

- grave's disease
- plummer's disease (toxic nodular goiter)
-- thyroid carcinoma
- thyrotoxic crisis (thyroid storm)
- overtreatment of hypothyroidism
- pituitary adenoma

18

grave's disease

- excess T4 and T3
- exopthalmos

19

exopthalmos

bulging eye(s)

20

toxic nodular goiter

aka plummer's disease
- caused by thyroid adenoma
- NO exopthalmos

21

thyrotoxic crisis

- severe thyrotoxicosis
- excessive levels of thyroid hormones

22

adenoma

- benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, characteristics, or both
- over time may transform to become malignant (adenocarcinoma)

23

hyperthyroidism caused by

- overtreatment of hypothyroidism (rapid titration, "overshooting" starting dose)

- pituitary adenoma (benign OR neoplastic)

24

hyperthyroidism treatments (x3)

- treat the cause!
- tapazole (methimazole)
- PTU (propylthiouracil)
- Iodine-131

25

growth hormone

- growth
- protein synthesis
- carbohydrate metabolism

26

growth hormone deficiency (peds) treatment

- proportionate short stature
- replace with synthetic GH supplement

27

growth hormone deficiency (adults) treatment

- reduced muscle mass/exercise capacity
- replacement with synthetic GH

28

growth hormone replacements

- Humatrope (somatropin)
- Increlex (mecasermin)
- Somavert (pegvisomant)

29

growth hormone excess (peds)

- gigantism
- surgical removal of the pituitary

30

growth hormone excess (adults)

- acromegaly
- surgery, radiation, pharmacologic therapy

31

ADH

anti-diuretic hormone

- promotes conservation of H20 in nephron collecting ducts
- vascular smooth muscle contraction (vasopressin)

ARTERIES not veins

32

mineralocorticoids

aldosterone

33

addison's disease

adrenal hormone hyposecretion

rare, chronic

symptoms develop insidiously and may take time to be recognised

34

cushing's syndrome is/causes

hypersecretion of ACTH
adrenal adenoma/carcinoma
high dose administration of glucocorticoids

35

adrenal hormone excess treatment

treat the cuase!
- surgical resection
- bilateral adrenalectomy with replacement therapy
- aldosterone antagonism (spironolactone)

36

spironolactone

aldosterone antagonist

37

sex hormones are produced by...

- ovaries
- adrenal cortices

38

estrogen is for

tissue development related to reproduction and female sexual characteristics

39

progesterone is for

contributes to uterine preparation for ovum implantation

40

androgen is for

- expression of male sex characteristics
- libido maintenance
- skeletal muscle growth

41

erectile dysfunction causes

psychogenic, physiologic, medication induced

42

nitrates

vasodilator, mostly used for the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris

PDE-5 inhibitor/nitrate interaction !!

43

hormones from adrenal glands & gonads...

STEROIDS!

44

steroids are produced by...

adrenal glands and gonads

45

HP & POA

hormones, pituitary & posterior: oxytocin ADH

46

azkaban loves voldemort

ADH = vasopressin

47

anterior pituitary gland

master gland! stimulates x6

48

anterior pituitary regulation

negative feedback system; increased hormone at target organ = decrease of release from anterior pituitary gland

49

hypothalamus

secretes releasing and inhibiting factors (APG's hype girl)
creates hormones to be stored by PPG (merch girl)

50

glucocorticoid hormone

cortisol

51

mineralocorticoid hormone

aldosterone

52

ADH regulation

increased osmolality

53

effect of T3, T4 (thyroid hormones)

- increased cardiac output
- increased oxygen consumption
- increased carb use
- increased protein synthesis
- lipolysis
also heat regulation and menstrual cycle

54

pancreas creates what and where?

alpha cells = glucogen
beta = insulin

55

parathyroid hormone regulates

increases calcium in blood
calcitonin = opposite effect

56

adrenal glands produce...

glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, small amounts of androgens, estrogen, and progestin

57

androgen

male sex hormones

58

adrenal medulla

inner section of adrenal glands

59

adrenal medulla secretes...

norepinephrine, epinephrine
linked with sympathetic nervous system

60

adrenal cortex

outer section of adrenal glands

61

adrenal cortex secretes...

glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, some androgens

62

glucocorticoid effects

electrolyte balance, anti-inflammatory, metabolism of carbs, proteins, fats, some effect on mineralocorticoids

63

hypothalamus secretes...

GH-IH, GH-RH, TRH, CRF

64

hypothyroidism primary cause

thyroid gland disorder

65

hypothyroidism secondary cause

decrease in TSH secretion

66

corticosteroids

glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgens

67

aldosterone regulation

RAAS system

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