Caring For Children and Adolescents Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Caring For Children and Adolescents Deck (28):
1

Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

0 - 2 --- sensorimotor
2 - 7 --- pre-operational
7 - 11 -- concrete operational
11 - 15 - formal operational

2

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

0 - 1 --- trust vs mistrust
1 - 3 --- autonomy vs shame/doubt
3 - 6 -- initiative vs guilt
6 - 12 - industry vs inferiority
12 - 18- identity vs role confusion

3

biggest stress until 3 years old
***

separation anxiety

4

play in infancy

solitary, sensorimotor, interaction with others

5

care of sick infant

encourage attachment!
appropriate stimulation.
meet needs immediately (trust vs mistrust stage!)

6

age of walking

around 12 months

7

major cognitive achievement of toddlers

language skills

NO EMPATHY YET (not able to see world from others' perspectives)

8

play in toddlerhood

parallel play, imitative

9

care of the sick toddler

encourage autonomy (offer choices)
transitional objects important (lovey, familiar toys) for anxiety
stress leads to regression (loss of autonomy)

10

psychosocial development in toddlers - what leads to x vs y?

positive outcome - autonomy/will power
negative outcome - shame/doubt

11

major 2 - 3 yo conflict with parents is due to...

potty training!

12

cognitive development of preschoolers

centration, transduction - "a nurse hurt me, all nurses will hurt me"

13

psychosocial development of preschoolers

positive outcome - purpose
negative outcome - guilt

14

play of the preschooler

associative, imagination is real, imitative

working through unresolved fear

15

care of the sick preschooler

encourage independence
boundaries are important
actively involve child (counters loss of control)
concrete explanation with anticipator values =preschoolers respond well to this

16

school age development

AGE OF THE LOOSE TOOTH!
6 - 11

17

cognitive development in school aged children

- decrease in egocentrism (key to moral development)
- can consider things without experiencing them (concrete operational)
- AGE OF REASON (introduce other perspectives without shaming)

18

major developmental achievements of school aged children

1. mobility
2. reading

19

psychosocial development in school aged children

goal: personal/interpersonal competence
positive outcome = competence
negative outcome = inferiority (can avoid if someone is there for them to negotiate with)

20

social development in school aged children

hero worship
peer approval
body image
groups/clubs
awareness of social norms

21

play in school aged children

cooperative
teams/rules (suppress individual for team thinking)
increase in physical/intellectual ability

22

care of sick school aged children

simple causal, concrete explanations
desire sense of accomplishment
fear separation from peers (can become sullen/angry)
fear of unknown
threat to independence (negotiate to give sense of control)

23

adolescence major achievements

12 - 18 yo!
physical/sexual maturity
educational/occupational decisions

24

3 stages of adolescence

11 - 14 early (puberty changes)
15 - 17 middle (dominate peer orientation)
18 - 20 late (transition to adulthood - to 25 ok too)

ADOLESCENTS VARIETY HUGE! Different ages, different stages, depends on the teen.

25

cognitive development in adolescence

formal operational! (ponder abstracts)
egocentrism typical
personal fable - imaginary audience

26

psychosocial development of adolescence

positive outcome: stable picture of self
negative outcome: confusion

27

play in adolescence

group sports, video games, music

28

care of the sick adolescent

fear of appearance alteration!
let them be actively involved - participation in decisions

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