20,21-Motor1,2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 20,21-Motor1,2 Deck (44)
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1

Voluntary motor control requires at least 3 operations:

1. Select action (decision)
2. Compute desired trajectory (sensorimotor coordinate transformation)
3. Compute muscle forces/joint torques requires to achieve desired trajectory

2

Dynamics

muscle forces

3

Kinematics

desired trajectory

4

Sensorimotor transformation

convert spatial information from sensory to motor coordinates

5

Motor planning

compute desired trajectory (kinematics)

6

Inverse dynamics problem

given desired trajectory, compute muscle forces and joint torques (dynamics) necessary to achieve trajectory

7

[True/false]: Abstract representation of kinematics is independent of dynamics

true

8

Bell-shaped velocity profile is controlled by

central pattern generators, not brain

9

CPGs

central pattern generators

10

Component of the motor system that acts as a 'trainable gate'

basal ganglia

11

Component of the motor system that supplies voluntary motor commands

cerebral cortex (primary motor, premotor, supplementary motor)

12

M1 neurons principally use [kinematic/dynamic] encodings

kinematic, but not purely

13

Corticospinal neurons terminate / originate in the brain at (x5)

- motor
- premotor
- cingulate
- supplementary motor
- somatosensory

14

Corticospinal neurons originate / terminate in the spinal cord at (x2)

- ventral horn (motor cortical areas)
- dorsal horn (somatosensory areas)

15

Each muscle fiber is innervated by ___ motor neuron(s)

one

16

Each motor neuron innervates ___ muscle fiber(s)

10-1000

17

Motor unit

muscle fibers innervated by one motor neuron

18

GTO

golgi tendon organ

19

GTOs sense ___

muscle force / tension

20

GTOs are connected to what fiber type

Ib

21

Muscle spindles sense ___

muscle length

22

Muscle spindles send afferent information via ___ fibers

Ia

23

Muscle spindles are stimulated by ___

gamma motor neurons

24

Types of gamma motor neurons and muscle spindle (x2)

- dynamic
- static

25

During voluntary muscle shortening, Ia activity [incr/decr]

increases (presumably because of prior increase in gamma activity for new set point?)

26

Locomotor CPG is located in ___

spinal cord

27

MLR

mesencephalic locomotor region (in pons)

28

Stimulation of MLR triggers ___, with ___ controlled by stimulation intensity

stepping, pace

29

[True/false] Same CPG can produce different motor programs depending on strength of input

true

30

Large amplitude movements have [more/less] noise

more