38-SpeechAndLanguage Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 38-SpeechAndLanguage Deck (19)
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1

aphasia

loss of language

2

prosody

fluency, rhythm

3

paraphasia

substitition of incorrect sounds

4

neologism

made up word

5

dysarthria

inability to speak

6

Wada test

test to determine dominant hemisphere
inject anesthetic into internal carotid to anesthetize one half of brain

7

neural correlates of handedness (x3)

- more fibers from left than right at pyramidal decussation
- more fibers from right pyramid do not cross
- more corticospinal fibers project to right ventral horn

8

Speech centers are primarily in [left/right] hemisphere

left (in majority of population)

9

location of broca's area

left frontal cortex, rostral to premotor and motor cortices

10

function of broca's area

association area for motor cortical areas that control mouth, tongue, larynx, and pharynx

11

domage to broca's area causes ___ aphasia

non-fluent

12

symptoms of non-fluent aphasia (x7)

- speech reduced to only most important words
- agramatical speech
- little spontaneous speech
- poor repetition
- normal comprehension
- patients are aware of problems with speech
- similar problems writing and ASL

13

location of Wernicke's area

left superior temporal and inferior parietal lobes

14

function of wernicke's area

auditory association cortex

15

damage to Wernicke's area causes ___ aphasia

fluent

16

symptoms of fluent aphasia (x8)

- fluent spontaneous speech
- poor comprehension of spoken or written words
- inability to carry out commands
- can't understand own speech
- frequent parahpasias, can be incomprehensible
- prosidy often normal
- patient can be unaware of errors
- poor repetition
- similar problems with written words

17

function of arcuate fasciculus

connects Broca's and Wernicke's areas

18

damage to arcuate fasciculus causes ___ aphasia

conduction

19

symptoms of conduction aphasia (x7)

- fluent speech
- paraphasias
- problems finding words
- patient can be aware of errors
- comprehension very good
- can follow complex instructions
- repetition poor (speaking or writing)