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Flashcards in 31-Neuroendocrine Deck (53)
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1

Pituitary gland lies at base of brain in indentation of ___ bone called ___

sphenoid bone, sella turcica

2

anterior pituitary aka

adenohypophysis

3

parts of anterior pituitary

- pars tuberalis
- pars distalis
- pars intermedia (vestigial in adult human)

4

posterior pituitary aka

neurohypophysis

5

parts of posterior pituitary

- infundibular stalk (pit. Stalk)
- posterior lobe

6

median eminence aka

infundibulum

7

function of median eminence

connection between hypothalamus and pituitary gland

8

posterior pituitary secretes ___ and ___ into systemic circulation

vasopression, oxytocin

9

Vasopressin and oxytocin are synthesized in ___ neurons in ___ and ___

magnocellular, supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei

10

[Magnocellular/parvocellular] neurons secrete peptides directly into systemic circulation

magnocellular

11

___ and ___ synapse on SON and PVN

limbic, solitary nucleus

12

SON

supraoptic nucleus

13

PVN

paraventricular nucleus

14

vasopressin aka

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

15

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

16

increased blood osmolality -> …?

incr solute (NaCl) -> incr vasopressin ->
(incr. water resorption) and
(incr. vasoconstriction -> incr. blood pressure)

17

hypovolemia -> …?

decr blood volume -> incr. vasopressin ->
(incr. water resorption) and
(incr. vasoconstriction -> incr. blood pressure)

18

hypotension -> …?

decr blood pressure -> incr. vasopressin ->
(incr. water resorption) and
(incr. vasoconstriction -> incr. blood pressure)

19

suckling -> …?

incr oxytocin -> milk ejection

20

OT

oxytocin

21

uterine stimulation -> …?

incr oxytocin -> uterine contraction

22

orgasm -> …?

incr oxytocin -> contraction of sm muscle in external genitalia -> (?) incr sensation (?)

23

Anterior pituitary secretes three families of hormones into systemic circulation. What are they?

- somatomammotropins
- glycoproteins
- opiomelanocortin peptides

24

somatomammotropins and their stimuli/effects (x2)

- growth hormone (exercise, stress, sleep -> growth and metabolism)
- prolactin (suckling, stress -> dev. of mammary tissue and lactation)

25

glycoproteins and their stimuli/effects (x3)

- thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (exposure to cold temps -> incr thyroid secretion -> incr cell metabolism -> heat production)
- follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (regulated by hypothalamic peptide and gonadal protein inhibin -> required for spermatogenesis or development of ovarian follicle)
- luteinizing hormone (LH) (regulated by hypothalamic peptide -> required for spermatogenesis / stimulates testosterone (male) or initiates ovulation and stimulates progesterone (female)

26

opiomelanocortin peptides and their stimuli/effects (x2)

- adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (stress -> incr ACTH -> incr release of cortisol from adrenal cortex)
- beta-endorphin (stress -> opiate-like peptide -> mu receptor)

27

GH

growth hormone

28

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone

29

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

30

LH

luteinizing hormone