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Flashcards in 2B : Sensation Deck (75):
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Sensation

The process by which we take physical energy from our environment and converted to neural signals. The relationship between physical stimulus of a psychological effect.

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Bottom up processing

Analysis that begins from the sense receptors and goes up to the brains integration of sensory information.

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Perception

The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events. Process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information.

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Top down processing

The process of perception: goes to the brain and then back to our senses, "filling in the gaps".

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Psychophysics

The study of the relationship between physical energy and psychological experience.

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Detection thresholds

The act of detecting a stimulus

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Absolute threshold

The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time: varies with their psychological state

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Signal detection theory

A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus. Biased and mood affect this as feelings heighten our reaction.

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Four possible outcomes of a sense test

1. Hit: Signal is present and participant senses it
2. Miss: Signal is present the participant does not detect it
3.false alarm: Signal is absent the participant detects they saw it
4.correct rejection: one signal is absent and participant didn't sense it

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Subliminal

Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness. Our mind can still process it if we cannot see or hear it.

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Discrimination threshold

The level of telling the difference between two stimuli or one as it changes

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Difference threshold

The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold and as a just noticeable difference also called JND

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Webbers law

Made by Ernst Weber stating that change has to be proportional to the original intensity of the stimulus for us to notice.

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Sensory adaptation

Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. Also known as getting used to something. One won't be able to notice important differences and allows one to ignore unimportant sounds or signals

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Receptor cells

Special cells designed to detect a specific type of energy

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Transduction

Conversion of one form of energy into another. Also known as sensory signals that are turned into neural impulses

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Contralateral shift

Opposite sides process. happens at thalamus; to all senses except smell

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Electromagnetic radiation

It kind of radiation including visible light, radio waves, gamma rays, and x-rays, in which electric and magnetic field very simultaneously.

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Wavelength

The distance from the peak of one light or soundwave to the peak of the next. This allows us to see different hues or colors.

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Hue

The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light.

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Intensity

The amount of energy in a light or soundwave which we perceive as brightness or loudness.

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Cornea

The protective layer of the eye

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Iris

A colored ring of muscle tissue that controls the size of the pupil opening

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Lens

The transparent structure behind the people that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

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Accommodation

The process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

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Acuity

The sharpness of vision

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Nearsightedness

A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina

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Farsightedness

A condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly the near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina.

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Distal stimulus

Objects and events out in the world about you. How an object appears in the real world.

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Proximal stimulus

The patterns of stimuli from these objects and events that actually read your senses. The thing that reaches your senses

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Retina

The light sensitive area

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Rods

Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision.

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Cones

Receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.

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Fovea

The center focal point in the retina, around which the eyes cones cluster. Allows us to see detail.

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Optic nerve

The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.

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Blind spot

The point at which the optic nerve leaves that I, creating a blind spot because no receptor cells are located there. Or no rods or cones in the area.

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Peripheral vision

Side vision; what is seen on the side by the eye when looking straight ahead. The outskirts of vision. Mostly made of rods.

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Feature detectors

Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement. Neurons that respond to specific features of the stimulus. David Hobbel and Torston Weisel

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Ganglion cells

The last link in the chain of neurons in the retina. This change in each retinas 125 million photo receptors, which gather information and channel it, via small number of synaptic connections, to the retina is 1 million ganglion cells

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Super cell cluster

Teams of cells that respond more complex patterns. They integrate info coming from feature detectors and connect them with our assumptions and beliefs.

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Parallel processing

The ability to process things simultaneously

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Young Helmholtz trichromatic theory

The theory that the retina contains three different color receptors-one most sensitive to read, one to green, went to blue-which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color.

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Opponent-process theory

The theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision.

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Colorblindness

The inability to see certain colors in the usual way. there is red/green color blindness and yellow/blue color blindness

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Afterimage

A visual illusion in which retinal impressions processed after the removal of the stimulus, believed to be caused by the continual activation of the visual system. Opposite color patterns after you shift your views.

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Color constancy

Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.

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Amplitude

The strength or height of soundwaves (allows us to notice the loudness).

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Frequency

The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second). Allows us to hear pitch: how high or how low a tone is. Measured in megahertz.

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Decibels

Unit used to measure intensity or energy.*85 dB*: brain-damaged prone.

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Auditory canal or ear canal

The narrow passageway from the outer ear to the eardrum. Channel soundwaves into the inner eat.

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Eardrum

A membrane of the middle ear that vibrates in response to soundwaves; the tympanic membrane.

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Middle ear

The chamber between the eardrum him and the cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, Annville, and stir up) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum them on the cochlea's oval window.

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Ossicles

The small bones in the middle ear also known as the hammer or malleus, anvil or incus, and stirrup or stapes.

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Oval window

Hey membrane-covered opening which leads from the middle ear to the cochlea.

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Inner ear

The innermost part of the year, containing the cochlea, semicircular Canal's, and vestibular sacs.

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Cochlea

A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which soundwaves trigger nerve impulses. Has a snail shaped.

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The basilar membrane

The long membrane that is part of the auditory system. Send neural impulses to the auditory nerve.

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Auditory nerve

A bundle of nerve fibers that sends information from the cochlea to the brain

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Place theory

In hearing, the theory that links the pitch we here with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated. We hear pitches because the pitch islinked to the cochlea's basilar membrane. Usually associated with high pitches.

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Frequency theory

In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, this enabling us to sense it's pitch. Usually associated with low pitches

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Localizing sounds

The ability to pinpoint the source and location of the sound, using input from the ears, as well as cognitive processes. Stereophonics-detect my new differences in the intensity and the timing of the sound received by each year.

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Conduction hearing loss

Hearing loss caused by damage to mechanical system that conducts soundwaves to the cochlea.

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Sensorineural heating loss

Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves, also called nerve deafness. Meningitis/high fever =sensorineural hearing loss

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Touch

Contains four sentences: pressure, warmth, cold, and pain-combined to produce other sensations.

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Cutaneous tactile receptors

Touch receptors

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Pressure and movement versus pain and temperature

Pressure and movement: go through fast, conducting, myelinated neurons that into the spinal cord then to the medulla then to the thalamus and then to the sensory cortex.

Pain and temperature: fast, conducting, myelinated neurons which go to the spinal cord going to the limbic system then to the sensory cortex

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Pain

A property not only of the senses-of the region where we feel it-but of the brain as well. Pain is good sometimes because it's the body's way of telling us something is wrong.

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Gate control theory

The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is open by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.

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Taste

Also known as gustation-chemical senses. Types of taste: sour (), sweet (glucose), better (poison), salty, umami (how rich Meat is (proteins))

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Papillae

One of the small, round or cone-shaped protuberances on the top of the town that contain taste buds. Information goes from the Papali to the taste buds to the Medela to the pons to the thalamus hypothalamus then to the limbic system

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Smell

Also known as off action; a chemical sense without basic sensation has 10 to 20,000,000 or factory receptors that are individual order molecule

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Olfactory bulb

A neural structure of the vertebrate for brain involved in all faction or the sense of smell. Goes from the olfactory bulb to the amygdala to the hippocampus

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Sensory interaction

The principle that one sends me influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.

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Vestibular sense

The sense of the body movement and position, including the sense of balance.

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Kinesthesis

The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts