Unit 4A: Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4A: Learning Deck (70):
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Learning

A relatively permanent or stable change in an organisms behavior due to experience. Learning must result in experience rather than in need to nature. Nature is what requires the changes in the brain

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Associative learning

Learning that certain events occur together. The events maybe two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or response and it's consequence (as in operant conditioning). Learning by association. Two stimuli or reward.

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Behaviorists

Psychologist to view that psychology should be an objective process. They believe that learned behavior can be reduced to universal response stimulus.

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John Watson

father is behaviorism. He change the definition of psychology too observant

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Classical conditioning

A learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired. A.k.a. forward conditioning-people and animals learn to associate a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that produces a reflexive response and learn to respond to new stimuli as they did the mold. This was established by Ivan Pavlov

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Unconditioned stimulus

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response. It is the original stimulus. Also called the UCS

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Unconditioned response

In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth. Also known as the UCR

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Neutral stimulus

A stimulus which initially produces no specific response other than focusing attention. Eventually turns into the condition stimulus. It does not elicit automatic response for example one Pavlov rings the bell for the rent for the dog the first time they don't know why he's ringing the bell until he give us a treat

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Conditioned stimulus

In classical conditioning, and originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response also known as the CS

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Conditioned response

In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus. Also known as the CR

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Respondent behavior

A reflexive behavioral process that happens in response to some stimulus I, and is essential to an organism survival

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Trace conditioning

During this, the condition stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus do not overlap. Instead, the condition stimulus begins and ends before the unconditioned stimulus is presented.

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Simultaneous conditioning

When the condition stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus are presented together.

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Backward conditioning

When the unconditioned stimulus occurs before the condition stimulus

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Acquisition

The initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response. It is used to acquire the condition response.

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Extinction

If reward cease the responses were also cease. The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced

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Spontaneous recovery

The reappearance after a rest. I've been extinguished conditioned response.

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Generalization

The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses. Response is triggered from similar stimuli.

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Discrimination

In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal and unconditioned stimulus. The ability to distinguish between similar and distant stimuli

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Garcia and koelling

They observed that if the stimulus made the subject sick they would learn to avoid it. Rats are biologically prepared to team associations of the taste of particular foods and the onset of illness. Conditioning principles are constrained by the biological predispositions of each species

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Conditioned taste aversion CTA

When the mind it develops a resistance towards a certain food parentheses due to illness). Also known as the Garcia affect it is highly resistant to extinction and works best with food and illness

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Stimulus generalization

One stimuli elicit similar responses to previously conditioned stimuli that share certain qualities. Such as when someone eat sushi and it makes them sick they don't go to anymore sushi joints

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Aversive conditioning

A type of behavior conditioning in which knocks you stimuli are associated with undesirable or unwanted behavior that is to be modified or abolished, as the use of nausea-inducing drugs in the treatment of alcoholism.. Unwanted behavior with the punishment

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Contiguity approach

Established by Pavlov and Watson, it is when you pair a natural stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.

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Contingency approach

Established by Robert wrist Orla, the condition stimulus comes to predict the unconditioned stimulus

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Operant conditioning

A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. When behavior is encouraged with rewards and punishments

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Edward Thorndike in the law of effect

The law states that when one is approached with pleasant rewards their behavior will increase but when one is approached with unpleasant rewards their behavior will decrease

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Instrumental learning

Consequences are instrumental in future learning and future behaviors. The process of reinforcing a behavior by consistently giving positive or negative reinforcement

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BF Skinner and operant chamber

Also known as the Skinner box, a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer with attached devices to record the animals rate of bar pressing or keep packing, using operant conditioning research. Skinner was the father of operant conditioning.

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Operant behavior

Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

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Shaping and successive approximations

In operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired goal. Done through successive approximations. The

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Reinforcer

In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

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Primary reinforcers

Innately reinforcing stimulus, such as the one that satisfies a biological me. And natural reinforcers such as food water sex

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Secondary reinforcer

A stimulus that games it's reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcers also known as a conditioned reinforcer examples include money for clothing

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Positive reinforcer

Adds a desirable stimulus

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Negative reinforcer

Remove an unpleasant aversive stimulus examples include shocking rat parentheses take shock a way to encourage a certain behavior)

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Generalized reinforcement

A reinforcer that acquires it's reinforcing strengths through its relation to multiple reinforcers examples include money in. Negative effects of the concerns can be aggression and fear of the punisher

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Punishment

Any event that decreases the behavior that it follows it (seen most effective: strong immediate and consistent)

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Positive punishment

Administer an aversive stimulus (getting a speeding ticket)

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Negative punishment

With draw a desirable stimulus (taking the phone away)

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Pre-Mac principle

The theory of reinforcement that states that more probable behaviors will reinforced less probable behaviors. So just different wards and punishment work better for different types of people

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Continuous reinforcement

Enforcing the desired response every time it occurs

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Partial reinforcement or intermittent reinforcement

Reinforcing response old me a portion of the time; result in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

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Fixed ratio schedule

In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only to alter a specified number of responses. FRS-reinforced every five times. For example people who work for commission get a bonus for a certain number of sold cars

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Variable ratio schedule

In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable amount of responses. I don't know when you will get the reward for example slot machines

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Fixed interval schedule

In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. Fixed time intervals

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Variable interval schedule

In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.

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Chaining

Using operant conditioning to teach a complex response by linking together less complex skills for example at a dog show they teach dogs to go through obstacle courses little by little

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Biology of the learning

There is evidence of neural networks warming; learning change his brain conclusion

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Donald hebb

Regarded motivation and learning as related aspects or properties of the same thing. Worked with aplysias.

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Aplysias

Casey slug they chose to work with sea slugs because they only have 20,000 neurons in the brain because they have fewer neurons the apes are humans learning you see more clearly

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Eric Kendall and neuromodulators

They have three groups of the sea slugs and they noticed that the neuromodulators were released from those that were shocked and shake think there girl that works about four times faster when they were shocked.

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Latent learning

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it. For example you don't know you can do something until you actually need to do it such as when Scarbrock down and he thought he was never listening to his dad was because then he knew how to change the belt thingy

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Edward Tolman and the cognitive map

He made the rack to go through the baby so many times that thing for the cognitive map of it which is a mental layout of one's environment

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Rats and the environment

The rats that were kept in the poor environment versus the rats that lived in the enriched environment the enriched environment in which their brains they had larger neural networks and cognitive bs

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Instinctive drift

The tendency of an animal to revert to instinctive behaviors that interfere with a conditioned response. Refers to reverting to instinct from a learned behavior.

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Over justification

The effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. This can in the long run take away the passion for the tasks because of the rewards and money.

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Intrinsic motivation

A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective

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Extrinsic motivation

A desire to perform a behavior due to its promised rewards or threats of punishment

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Criticisms of skinner

Skinner and dehumanize people died to go look in their personal freedom and dignity

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Abstract learning

The mastery of ideas, stories, St. notions and how they work together. Learning through deep thinking. Four steps to this: one observation to evaluation three considering the possible responses and for making a decision

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Insight learning

Identified by Wolfgang Kohler-a type of learning or problem-solving that happens all of a sudden through understanding the relationship various parts of a problem rather than trial and error. Worked with chimps learning with cognitive inside. Basically it's when you get an epiphany or like the lightbulb in your head.

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Social learning

Social behavior is learned primarily by observing and imitating the actions of others

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Observational learning

Learning by observing others

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Modeling

The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

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Albert Bandura and the Bobo doll

Bindura didn't experiment in which he had an adult Beat a Bobo doll in front of a child and recorded whether or not the child would do the same to the Bobo doll.

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For conditions for observational learning

Helps us understand how abusive parents might have aggressive children

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Antisocial effects

C

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Pro social effects

Positive constructive helpful behavior

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Violence and the media

Research has shown that viewing media violence does lead to increased expression of aggression in the viewers