Unit 3A: Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3A: Perception Deck (32):
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Perceptual process

The unconscious process we undergo to make sense of the infinite stimuli and sensations we encounter. Selecting, organizing, and interpreting our senses. How our mind interpret stimuli from our senses.

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Bottom up processing

Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information. Information going from our senses to the brain. Also known as feature analysis

2

Top-down processing

Information processing guided by higher-level processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations. Sensory information goes from the brain to the rest of the body. We perceive the missing gaps

3

Theory of constructive perception

The theory in which the perceiver uses sensory information and other sources of information to construct a cognitive understanding of a stimulus. We create perceptual constructs out of the pieces of elements with the involvement of higher cognitive usage. Prior knowledge is required

4

Direct perception

A theory arguing that sensory perception is the direct use of information from the surrounding environment. Our senses are all the need for perception. Prior knowledge is not required

5

Adaptation

I just meant to some type of in my environmental change. Unconscious, temporary, change in response to environmental stimulus

6

Habituation

A psychological learning process where in there is a decrease in response to a stimulus after being reportedly exposed to it. When one becomes accustomed to a stimulus.

7

Dishabituation

The brief recovery of a response to the eliciting stimulus want another stimulus is added. When change causes us to notice the initial stimulus.

8

Attention

Concentration on a particular process allows us to focus on small aspect in our perceptual world.

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Selective attention

The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect. Focus on one particular thing. So it's on one thing and ignore the rest.

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Cocktail party effect

The ability to attend selectively to only one voice among many

11

Change blindness

A psychological phenomenon that occurs when a change in visual stimulus goes unnoticed by the observer

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Filter theories

Limit the amount of information to be attended to. The stimulus must pass through some filter or screen to enter our attention

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Attenuation resource theory

A theory that states we only have a fixed amount of attention

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Divided attention

When one is required to perform two tasks at the same time and attention is required for the performance of both tasks. Girls can multitask better than boys. Difficult when the same senses are used

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Illusion

Distortion of the senses which mislead us by playing on the ways we typically organize or interpret our sensations

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Visual capture

The tendency for vision to dominate the other senses. Vision always wins sense fights.

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Gestalt psychology

And organized hole. Gestalt psychologists emphasize our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful holes. Gestalt psychology depends on figure ground

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Figure ground

The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground). Our vision always spots figures and blurs the background.

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Proximity

Grouping of the nearby figures together. For example, the example is not six separate lines but three sets of two lines.

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Similarity

Figure similar to each other that our group together we see vertical columns rather than horizontal

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Symmetry

Our tendency to perceive mirror images.

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Continuity

We perceive smooth continuous pattern rather than discontinuous ones

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Closure

We complete objects by filling in gaps

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Connectedness

When uniform and linked, we perceive spots, lines, or areas as a single unit.

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The law of Pragnanz

Reality is organized or reduced to the simplest form possible. We tend to see objects in their samples form.

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Visual perception

The ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light. The ability to interpret light: depth, size, shape, and motion

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Visual cliff

And apparatus used to test depth perception in infants and young animals

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Depth perception

Introduced by Eleanor Gibson and Richard walk, the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allows us to judge distance. Without this the world would be two dimensional

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Binocular cues

Depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes. A.k.a. stereopsis.

30

Retinal disparity also known as binocular disparity

A binocular queue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance-the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.

31

Convergence

A binocular queue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object. For example, the brain computes whether you are focused on this printed page or on something else across the room.