Unit 4B-Memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4B-Memory Deck (62):
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Memory

The persistence of learning overtime and through the storage and retrieval of information

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Flashbulb memories

A memory of an emotionally significant moment or event/build memories are usually very vivid

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Atkinson and shiffrin three stage processing model

Tell memory is processed. Processes include encoding storage and retrieval

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Encoding

The processing of information into the memory system for example by extracting meaning

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Storage

The retention of encoded information overtime

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Retrieval

The process of getting information out of memory storage

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Sensory memory

The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. Whatever you hear taste smell etc. it is the gateway of perception and the senses

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Short-term memory

Activated memory that holds a few times briefly such as the seven digits of the phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten. Working memory is a similar concept that focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information. Hold information from 20 seconds to a minute

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Working memory

How we attend to rehearse and manipulate information in temporary storage

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Long term memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. 2,500,000 GB of information. If information is lost it is usually due to retrieval failure or storage decay.

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Levels of processing model

We remember by examining how deeply our memory was processed or thought about

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Selective attention

The capacity for or process of reacting to certain stimuli selectively one several occur simultaneously. Only focusing on one thing-good for encoding because it helps us decipher what is important.

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Automatic processing

Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such a space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.

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Effortful processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

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Herman Ebbinghaus

The pioneering research or a verbal memory. Scientifically study memory. One amount remember depends on how much you dedicated to learn it. Two: 90% of the stuff we learned goes away within a month without effortful processing

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Rehearsal

The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

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Maintenance rehearsal

A type of memory rehearsal that is useful in maintaining information in short-term memory or working memory. To keep an item until you need it and use it.

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Elaborative rehearsal

A memory technique that involves thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered, as opposed to simply repeating the word to yourself over and over. Organization and understanding of information encoded until transferred to our long-term memory

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Over learning

The repeated practice of a skill or study of material to further strengthen memory and performance

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Spacing effect

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention and is achieved through math study or practice. Learning little by little; learning is distributed

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Serial position effect

Our tendency to recall the best the last and first items in a list

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Primacy and recency

Primacy is the first part of the list and recency is the last part of the list.

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Symantec encoding

Encoding of meaning including the meaning of words. Odoriferous

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Acoustic encoding

The encoding of sound especially the sound of words. Word rhymes like mnemonic devices

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Visual encoding

Encoding of picture images

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Imagery

Mental pictures: a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding it

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Mnemonic devices

Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices. The method of Loki or the link method is used by associating things with something you are very familiar with. The pen word method is when is a jingle and it it's like for lists like one gun to shoot three tree for door and you associate things with those words

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Chungking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

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George Sperling

Tested how much people remembered one shown glimpses at one 20th of a second. The people only remembered about half of the letter shown

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Iconic memory

A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

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Echoic memory

A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds in words can still be recalled within three or four seconds

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Magic number seven

I was short-term memory usually only stores about seven bits of information; seven numbers in the phone, seven seas, seven primary colors, seven days of the week

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Long-term potential Asian

Or LTP, an increase in the synapses firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

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Kendall and Schwartz

Observe changes in the sending neuron in the simple animal the California CCU up Leasia it's a mere 20,000 or so nerve cells are usually large and accessible enabling the researchers to observe synaptic changes during learning. The ones who were shocked remember things better then the ones who were just petted

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Antero grade amnesia

A loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, or long-term memories from before the event to remain intact. Your member up to a certain point but nothing after that anything you

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Retrograde amnesia

You forget memories from the past.

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Implicit memory

Retention independent of conscious recollection. Also called procedural memory. Memory of skills, memories of preferences, dispositions

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Explicit memory

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare her. Also called declarative memory

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Episodic memory

A branch of explicit memory that relates to facts and general knowledge. Stores it is meanings, categories, or facts themselves

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The hippo campus and memory

A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storageputs what we learn into memory. If gone, enter a greater media. Not a permanent storage

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The cerebellum and memory

Works with implicit memories process is implicit memories

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The amygdala in memory

Processes emotions

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Recall

A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, I was on the fill in the blank test

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Recognition

A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on the multiple choice test

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Relearning

A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

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Semantic network theory web of associations

A graphic notation for representing knowledge and patterns of interconnected nodes and arts. The brain creates new memories by associating them to previous memories

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Priming

The activation, often unconsciously of particular associations in memory

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State dependent theory

The phenomenon through which memory retrieval is most efficient when an individual is in the same state of consciousness as they were when the memory was formed

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Mood congruent theory

The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.

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Encoding specificity principle

Provides a framework for understanding how contextual information affect memory and recall

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Deja vu

The Erie sense that: I've experienced this before.: cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience

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Storage decay

A type of forgetting that occurs when memories fade over time

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Proactive interference

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

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Retro active recall

The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

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Repression

In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing of thoughts, feelings and memories

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Elizabeth Loftus

Studied the existence of false memories

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Reconstruction

The process of recalling a series of stimuli in the order that they were represented

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Miss information effect

Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event. Adding leading questions

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Leading questions

A question asked in such a way to suggest the answer

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Memory gaps

Fill them in with guesses and assumptions

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Imagination and memory

Your imagination and perception of how the memory should have not been influence your actual memory and can cause false memories

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Source amnesia

Attributing to the wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, right about, or imagined also called source misattribution. Source of Niger along with the misinformation effect is at the heart of many false memories. One must have physical evidence and other validated reports of the event