Unit 3B: Consciousness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3B: Consciousness Deck (73):
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Consciousness

Our awareness of ourselves and our environment. The process of evaluating the environment and filtering this information through the mind will being aware of this process.

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William James

Introduce the stream of consciousness which refers to the float in the conscious mind. He believes the consciousness was a stream of thought.

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Robert Sternberg

Team did a mental ability, created to help us adapt to the world and establish our personal identity. Mental reality that we create to adapt to the world. Consciousness is monitoring ourselves and how we respond to our environment

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Levels of consciousness

The measurement of a person's arouse ability and responsiveness to stimuli from the environment

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Conscious

Awareness or perception of an inward psychological or spiritual fact: intuitively perceive knowledge of something in one's inner self. Level that we are currently aware of.

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Non-conscious

Controlled by the mind; part of us is aware of it but we are not aware of it taking place. Consciousness of our body; heart beating, eating, peeing. It keeps us alive

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Preconscious

Consists of information we are not currently aware of but have easy access to for example things in your memory.

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Subconscious (subliminal)

Beneath the surface; deals with information we are not aware of the processes the information so fast we know it exists. Such as when you meet someone you subconsciously react to their gender, race, and appearance

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Mere exposure effect

Our tendency to prefer previously seen people or things. A psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar to them

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Priming

Associating things with things you already know. And increased sensitivity to certain stimuli due to prior experience. Because priming is believed took her outside conscious awareness it is different from memory that relies on the direct retrieval of information.

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Tip of the tongue phenomenon

When information is available but difficult to access

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Unconscious

Information that was stored but it's too difficult to deal with so we repress them. The Fradian slip: when you say something you didn't mean to but you really did.

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Daydreams and walking fantasies

A constructive part of everybody's repertoire of behaviors. Daydreams can help us prepare for future events by keeping us aware of our unfinished business and giving us the chance to monthly rehearsed. Fantasies enhance creativity of scientists writers and artists. It also nurses social and cognitive development in children.

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Sleep

The irresistible tempter to whom we inevitably succumb: the mantle that covers human thought: sweet, renewing, mysterious sleep

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Biological rhythms

Periodic physiological fluctuations affecting human functioning. Annual cycles 28 day cycle's 24-hour cycles and 90 minutes cycles all are all biological rhythm

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Circadian rhythm

Biological clock or a schedule of when we wake and when you sleep

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Awake stage

More stressed=bigger alpha waves

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Stage one

Consists of light sleep which lasts up to five minutes, you may experience fantastic images, resembling hallucinations. You may have a sensation of falling a floating weightless sleep. The waves fluctuate between alpha, beta, data; this is called sleep onset

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Stage two

A more relaxed deep sleep, characterized by the periodic a period of sleep spindles-bursts of rapid rhythmic brainwave activity. Total lasts up to about 20 minutes and the skeletal muscles begin to relax

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Stage III and four

A transitional stage in which the brain him it's large, slow delta waves stage III consists of deep sleep and it is difficult to wake people up during the stage. Both stages three and four last for about 30 minutes children tend to sleepwalker what the bed at the end of the stages in stage for the body begins to replenish itself and fortifies the immune system

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REM sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep, a reoccurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed except for minor twitches but other body systems are active. Brain waves look like the awake stage the states left about 100 minutes throughout the night; 600 hours a year; 100,000 dreams in a lifetime

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Reasons for sleep

Number one: protective role in evolution number two: recuperate and restore body tissue number three-the brain repairs and organize itself; consolidates memories number four-link to pituitary growth hormone for kids

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Sleep debt

The cumulative amount of sleep lost from insufficient sleep, regardless of cause. Do you mount to sleep you know yourself from insufficient sleep

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Insomnia

Reoccurring problems and falling or staying asleep. Exercise and regular sleep patterns may aid insomnia. 10 to 15% of adults complaining of insomnia. It is usually temporary but can because by stress alcohol and caffeine

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Narcolepsy

A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer many laps directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times. Only lasts a few minutes but can cause people to get their drivers licenses evoked due to danger.

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Sleep apnea

A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessation of breathing during sleep. Stops breathing for about half a minute, they wake up this morning and trying to breathe. Usually an older fat man. Can happen up to 100 times a night.

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Sleepwalking AKA somnambulism

Walking while you're sleeping. Usually happens in stages three or four of sleep.

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Night terrors

A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occurred during stage for sleep, within two or three hours falling asleep, and are seldom remembered

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Dreams

A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Mostly ordinary events, but involve anxiety rather than try amp or achievement.

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Lucid dreams

Any dream in which one is aware that they are dreaming.

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Nightmares

A frightening or unpleasant dreams. Usually happen early morning ram sleep and are highly emotional. Nightmare as mature as you mature.

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Manifest content

According to Freud, the remembered storyline of the dream (as distinct from its related content). It is the literal part of the dream.

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Latent content

According to Freud, the underlying meaning of the dream (as distinct from its manifest content).

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Activation synthesis theory

Dreams are random brain activity that activate things like the limbic system and it makes a situation from it.

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Information processing theory

The belief that dreams may help sift, sort, and fix the days experiences in her memory. Help this process information and stored into memory

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REM rebound

The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation. When you sleep in class you go straight to rem sleep.

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Hypnosis

A social interaction in which one person suggest another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

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Posthypnotic amnesia

The suppose it inability to recall that one experience during hypnosis. Temporary memory loss after hypnosis

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Posthypnotic suggestion

Hey suggestion made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized. Can treats chronic pain. Can reduce blood pressure, hope quit smoking, help with weight loss, help with stress related skin disorders

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Suggestibility

Very southern normally distributed curve. One: person has a rich fantasy life. Two: the ability to follow directions well. Three: focus intensely on a task for a long time.

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Social influence theory

The change in behavior that one person causes another, intentionally or unintentionally, as a result of the way the change person perceives themselves in relationship to the influencer, other people, and society in general. Hypnosis is the byproduct of the new normal and social cognitive process.

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Role theory

When someone is not actually hypnotize but they take on the role of hypnotize person. They follow directions for fantastical effects.

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Divided consciousness theory

A psychological state in which one's consciousness split into distinct components, possibly during hypnosis. The split an awareness

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Dissociation

A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others

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Hilgard and the hidden observer

The idea that one part of the person who's being hypnotized while being but is conscious of other things such as pain. Refer to ice bucket example.

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Psychoactive drugs

A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood

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Tolerance

The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of the drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drugs affect

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Withdrawal

The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an active drug; mental and physical pain are both present.

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Physical dependence

If physiological need for a drunk, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued. People have intense cravings for drugs.

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Physiological dependence

A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions. Stress drugs usually. Based on expectations.

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Blood-brain barrier

Thick walls that surround the blood vessels and protects it from toxins. Drug molecules are small so they get through.

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Agonists

A substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with the receptor. They mimic neurotransmitters.

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Antagonist

A substance that interferes with or inhibits the physiological action of another. They block narrow transmitters and reuptake so it leaves an abundance in the brain. The brain becomes dependent

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Synergistic effect

Enhancement of one subject more than another. Two or more substances in the liver in the liver can't handle it and it makes the substance more potent and it can't filter.

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Depressants

Drugs such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates, that reduce neural activity and slow body functions. They depress the CNX which means they slow down neural activity

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Intoxication

Being mentally or emotionally exhilarated by a substance.

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Alcohol

A volatile from the liquid that is the intoxicating constituent of wine, beer, spirits, and other drinks. Alcohol decreases dopamine levels, reduces peoples attention and motor ability, dizziness, slurred speech, impaired judgment, repaired reflexes, respiratory failure can be caused by an excess of alcohol. 10% of people are left with irreversible brain damage because of alcohol

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Barbiturates

Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment. Richards can cause sleepiness. They can cause respiratory depression. They are highly addictive. They are also dangerous when mixed with alcohol or opiates.

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Opiates/narcotics

Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. Coding-pain prescriptions. Heroin is the most physically addictive drug because it changes brain chemistry very quickly.

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Anxiolytics

Drugs used to reduce anxiety. Also known as tranquilizers. They reduce anxiety without causing sleepiness.

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Stimulant

Drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines and cocaine, that excite neural activity and speed up body functions. It can cause euphoria.

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Caffeine

Caffeine accelerated heart rate, constricts blood vessels and reduces adenosine which is a CNS regulator. Can cause irritability and anxiety. Insomnia and polyuria

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Nicotine

A mixture of stimulant and a depressant. It's speed you up and calms you down as needed. It decreases appetite. Causes euphoria and dizziness.

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Amphetamines

Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded up body functions and associated energy and mood changes. Increases in body temperature are known to be associated with amphetamines. It stimulates the product of dopamine and adrenaline. High doses can cause problems and motor functions.

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Cocaine

Extremely potent and concentrated. It increases the heart rate and blood pressure, boost self-confidence and makes you feel invincible, releases dopamine and serotonin and norepinephrine, causes aggression and is highly addictive. The high does not usually last long.

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Ecstasy (MDMA)

A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy. Short-term health risks consist of dehydration which can lead to heat stroke. Long-term health risks consist of impaired memory and cognitive functions which made and lead to heart problems.

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Methamphetamine

A synthetic drug with more rapid and lasting effects than amphetamines, used illegally as a stimulant and as a prescription drug to treat narcolepsy and maintain blood pressure. Methamphetamine increases libido, is known to cause headaches, diarrhea, obsessive thoughts, and skin deterioration.

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Hallucinogens

Psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD also known as acid that distort perceptions and Eve Oak sensory images in the absence of sensory input. They distort judgment like time. They remain in the body for weeks. Peyote and sidenote Kaidon mushrooms are known as hallucinogens.

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LSD

Known to distort reality, effects are not predictable, people lose their consciousness in their identity. Can cause sensory synesthesia would your senses overlap. Affects our serotonin levels. A powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (list surgical acid diethylamide.

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Marijuana

Also known as THC, the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations. Marijuana can distort perceptions of reality, give the idea that you're good at things such as driving, lowers testosterone levels, affects memory retrieval

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Near-death experience

An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as cardiac arrest) often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.

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Dualism

Presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact.

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Monism

The presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.