Unit 5:developing Person Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5:developing Person Deck (70):
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Developmental psychology

A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan

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Zygote

The fertilized egg; it enters a two-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo. Called the germinal period/stage because it is the size of a germ it attaches to the placenta

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Embryo

The developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through the second month. The bodies organs begin to function

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Fetus

The developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth. Known as the fetal stage

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Toratogens

Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm this places the child at risk

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Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial mis-proportions.

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Reflexes

Babies are born with sensory equipment and reflexes that facilitate interaction.

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Rooting reflex

A babies tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple. This is a survival reflex

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Palmore reflex

Infant clothes his hand and grips your finger (can also result in flexion) when palm is tickled

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Babinski reflex

Toast fanout word one soul of the foot is stroked. Helps with walking later

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Sucking reflex

Begins to suck when nipple or anything touches the lips

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Moro reflex

Extends arms then bends and pulls them toward the body with the brief cry; caused by loud sound or sudden movements

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Orientation reflex

Response to changing stimulant, how they react to changing faces are voices, like to look at things about 8 to 12 inches away

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Habituation

Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner. How they discriminate color shape sounds numbers and physics

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Nerve cells before and after birth

Neural network start to learn. They grow very quickly at first but slow down later

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Maturation

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively influenced by experience. Not due to environment. As infants muscles mature, becomes more complicated

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Motor development

Infants more complex physical skills-sitting, standing, walking-develop any predictable sequence his actual timing is a function of individual maturation rate and culture.

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Nature and nurture

G

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Cognition

All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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Schema

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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Assimilation and accommodation

Assimilation is interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas. Accommodation is adapting one's current understandings or schemas to incorporate new information

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Piaget's cognitive development stages

Piaget described cognitive development in four stages. He believed that children experience spurts of change followed by a greater stability as they grow

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Stage one of Piaget's cognitive development theory: sensorimotor

Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing, and grasping). Usually occurs from ages 0 to 2.

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Object permanence

Infants younger than six months do not understand that things continue to exist when they are out of sight. They think it disappears from existence. Out of sight out of mind

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Stage two of Piaget's cognitive development: preoperational

Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning. Usually occurs from 2 to 6 years of age so preschool to first grade and it occurs when they are mastering language

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Conservation

The principal (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that property such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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Egocentric

Piaget's theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view

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Theory of the mind

Peoples ideas about their own and others' mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict

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Autism

A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of other states of mind. Haven't achieved the theory of the month

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Stage III of Piaget's cognitive development: concrete operational

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about six or 7 to 11 years old) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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LeV Vygotsky

Social interaction and imaginative play large contributors to the process of cognitive development. It allows kids to think when they're trying to talk to themselves while thinking. At age 7 they internalize their thoughts which results in faster processing

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Stage four of Piaget's cognitive development: formal operational

In Piaget's theory the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. When children start hypothesizing. When math and English get complicated

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Criticisms of Piaget

Some of his conceptual abilities were missed and some believe that there was overlap in stages

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Social development

A commitment that development processes need to benefit people, particularly but not only the poor, but also a recognition of how people interact

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Stranger anxiety

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about eight months of age. Object permanence happens at eight months too.

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Attachment

Any motional tie with another person; showing in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. They get attached to parents grandparents siblings. Contact comfort is important it helps build basic trust

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Harry Harlow and the monkeys

He separated monkeys from their mothers and gave them a fake feeding monkey then they were introduced to a Clock monkey but the attached to the clock monkey better because they feel more protected

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Critical period

An optimal period Shortly after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

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Imprinting

The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. Ducks and geese attached to the first thing they see what you usually their mother

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Mary Ainsworth

Strange situations: studied mother infant relations in the strange situations that result without them.

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Secure attachment

And emotional bond between children and caregivers that a psychologist named Mary Ainsworth observed

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Avoidant attachment

Tend to avoid caregivers usually after an absence

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Anxious or ambivalent attachment

Children are extremely suspicious of strangers and they resist their comforting

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Basic trust

According to Erick Erickson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

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Three parenting styles

One. Authoritarian: parents impose rules and expect obedience to. Permissive: parent submit to children's desires, makes you demand, and use little punishment three. Authoritative: parents are both demanding and responsive.

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Self-concept

Sense of one's identity and personal worth. By school-age children started to find themselves through gender intergroup relationships. This is basically why you matter. At about 18 months infants recognize themselves in the mirror

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Adolescence

The transition. From childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence

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Puberty

The period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing. Girls at age 11 boys at age 13

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Primary sex characteristics

The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

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Secondary sex characteristics

Non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, mail voice quality, and body hair

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Menarche

The first menstrual period. For boys it is the first ejaculation

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Cognitive development

Adolescence developing ability to reason gives them a new level of social awareness and moral judgment. The frontal lobe starts to change during adolescence

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Moral development

A crucial task of childhood and adolescence is discerning from right or wrong and developing character

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Lawrence Colberg moral development stages in the Heinz dilemma

C

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Preconventional morality

Before age 9, most children have a preconventional morality of self interest. They obey either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards

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Conventional morality

By early adolescence, morality usually involves to a more conventional level that cares for others and upholds laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules

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Postconventional morality

Some of those who developed the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought that may come to a third level. Postconventional morality of firms peoples agreed-upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles. Life is greater than property laws

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Carol Gilligan

A critic who thought the different countries make different moral decisions. I'll girls and boys make different world sessions. Sometimes her feelings proceed or judgments and social influences can influence this is well

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Eric Erickson stage of psychosocial development

One. Trust versus mistrust: occurs in infancy; it means our dependably minute infants develop a sense of basic trust too. Autonomy versus shame and doubt: occurs from ages 1 to 2; colors and to exercise will and do things for themselves or they doubt their abilities three. Initiative versus guilt: occurs from ages 3 to 5; preschoolers want to initiate tasks and carry out plans or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent 4. Competence versus inferiority: occurs from ages six to puberty; children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks or they feel inferior five. Identity versus role confusion in: from teens to 20s; teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing rolls and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are 6. Intimacy versus isolation: 20 E. 40; young adult struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love or they feel socially isolated seven. Generalitivity versus stagnation: 40s to 60s; the middle age discover a sense of contribution to the world, usually through family and work or they may feel a lack of purpose eight. Integrity versus despair: 60s and older; when reflecting on his or her life the older adult me feel a sense of satisfaction or failure

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Identity

One sense of self; according to Ericsson, the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.

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Intimacy

In Ericksons theory, the ability to form close, loving relationship; a primary developmental task in a late adolescence and early adult

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Physical development

Our physical abilities-muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output-all crest my mid 20s

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Menopause

The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

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Sensory abilities

Child learns through sensations

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Dementia and Alzheimer's disease

A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning

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Crystallized versus fluid intelligence

Crystallized intelligence is one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills that tend to increase with age while fluid intelligence is one ability to reason speedily and abstractly which tends to decrease with adulthood

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Social clock

The culturally preferred timing of social event such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

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Commitments-family and career

Love centers on family commitment; spouse, children, parents. We look for satisfaction in love. Similarity of interests and values. Kids take away emotional energy. Careers help make people people feel accomplished

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Elizabeth Kubler Ross and stages of grieving and death

Stage one is denial which consists of conscious and unconscious or rejection of reality. Stage two is anger you feel angry toward what is happening to you. Stage III is bargaining where one seeks compromises with God or with whomever. Stage four is depression in which they except the fact that they're dying but there still really emotional and suicidal thoughts occur during the stage. And the fifth stage is acceptance whereI know they are going to die but there emotionally detached

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Concrete operation

Our physical abilities-muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output-all crest my mid 20s