Unit 5A:thinking And Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5A:thinking And Learning Deck (51):
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Cognition

The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating, and processing in understanding

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Autistic thinking

Preoccupation with inner thoughts do you dreams fantasies private logic egocentric subjective thinking locking objectivity in connection with external reality

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Directed thinking

Thinking toward a specific goal reasoning that draws inferences; problem-solving

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Reasoning

Logical process of an inductive or deductive nature use to draw conclusions from factor premise

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Deductive reasoning and

A decision making process word choices are made based upon the results of previous choices and the critical observation of the results. Drawing conclusions from a general statement

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Inductive reasoning and

A style of reasoning in which decisions are made and conclusions are reached by a process of analyzing available evidence and past experience. Making general inference from a specific observation

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Metacognition

The active thinking about thinking or the combination of cognition. It is the ability to control your own thoughts

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Concept

The mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. The way of organizing the world around us

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Types of concepts

Super ordinate: broad or large concepts such as food. Number two: basic: smaller or more specific concepts such as bread. Number three subordinate: even smaller and more specifics such as rye bread

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typicality

Exhibiting the qualities, traits, or characteristics that identify a kind, class, group, or category. The degree an object fits the concept

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Prototype

A mental image or best example of a category.

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Images

A mental concept that we create in our minds of the outside world. They can be visual, tactile I'll, auditory, old factory, and taste

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Algorithms

A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problems. Contrast of the usually speedier but also more error-prone use of heuristics

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Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone then I'll grill them as a heuristic is like a rule of thumb

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Representative heuristic

Judging the likelihood of stupid because how well it fits the Proto type

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Availability heuristic

Making a judgment on the availability of the memory

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Insight

A sudden and often I will realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions

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Convergent versus divergent thinking

Convergent thinking is logical and conventional thought that leads to a solution all divergent thinking is a thought process that uses thinking creatively

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Confirmation bias and implicit assumptions

The tendency for a person to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions. Implicit assumptions: people assume there are rules limiting what they can do when no such rule exists

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Fixation

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem-solving

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Mental set (Aka rigidity)

The tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially away that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving the new problem

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Functional fixedness

The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem-solving

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Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments. People who are overconfident tend to be more happy

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Framing

The Wayne issue is supposed to; how many she was framed can significantly gently affect decisions and judgments for example 90% survival sounds better than 10% death

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Belief bias

The tendency for once pre-existing beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making in valid conclusion seem valid, or valid conclusion seen invalid. For example you're more likely to accept something close and construction to your beliefs than what is opposed to them

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Belief perseverance

Clinging to one's initial concepts after the bye basis on which they were formed has been discredited. Going into our ideas in the face of contrary evidence. Collazos' religious mom

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Artificial intelligence

The science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes, such as intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language

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Computer neural networks

Circuits that mimic the brains interconnected neural cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells

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Language

How are spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combined them to communicate meaning. Infant start learning language in the womb because they hear it. 6.3% of US children are raised bilingual. There are 6800 spoken languages in the world: 250 out of the 6800 or spoken by more than 1 million people: 600 out of the 6800 have enough speakers to survive the century: 66% of children in the world are raised bilingual

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Language

Our spoken written or signed words and the ways we combined them to communicate meaning. There are 6800 spoken languages 250 or spoken by more than 1 million people 600 have enough speakers to survive the century 66% of children are raised bilingual 6.3% of US children are raised bilingual and infants start learning language in the womb

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The five key factors of language

Number one language is arbitrary number to the structure of language is additive number three has the multiplicity of structure number for languages productive member five languages dynamic

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For reasons to make a true language

One. Express physical, emotional, cognitive states to issue signals that can elicit a response from other individuals three describe concepts ideas and external states of affairs for has to comment on previous communications and past

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Phoneme

In the spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit. There are 41 to 44 phonemes in English

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Morpheme

In a language, the smallest unit that carries meeting; maybe a word or part of the word such as a prefix

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Grammar

In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

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Semantics

The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the city of meaning

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Syntax

The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

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Prosody

The patterns of stress and internation and language. Tone and inflection that is added to a language

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Cooing/babbling stage

Beginning at 3 to 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language. They make phonemes they start to Babel household language at about 10 months

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One-word stage

The station speech development from about age 1 to 2 during which a child speaks mostly in single world they speak in holo phrases

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Holo phrase

Single words filled with meaning

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Overextension

Basic generalization of object or animals. A word represents more than the category where it is usually said for example a child to call their mother grandmother and the store clerk mama because in their minds female signifies mama

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To word stage

Beginning at about age to the stage and speech development during which a child speaks mostly to word statements is a telegraphic speech using nouns and verbs

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Overgeneralization

The extension of rules where they do not apply. Overusing grammatical rules such as I runned fast today

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Beyond the two word stage

Language grammar and vocabulary increased dramatically by three years old we know 1000 words and buy five years we understand complex sentences

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BF Skinner's view

Believe that language can be explained with familiar learning principles such as association imitation and reinforcement falls in the category of nurture

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Cognitive and gnome Chomsky's view

Believes that children have been in the way to learn language fall into the category of nature

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Language acquisition device

A hypothetical module of the human mind posited to an account for children's in the predisposition for language acquisition. It enables infants to acquire and produce language rapidly

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Benjamin wharf

Documented the importance of language in shaping our innermost thoughts and feelings for documenting the strong connection between language and behavior

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Linguistic determinism hypothesis

Language we use controls are limits are thinking when Mr. Grasso said Dr. we all thought of mail but when he said nurse we all thought of the female

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Edward sappier and Benjamin worth

Saw different languages develop different ways of thinking