30: A Second Global Conflict and the End of the European World Order Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 30: A Second Global Conflict and the End of the European World Order Deck (28):
1

National Socialist (Nazi) Party

Also known as the Nazi party; led by Adolf Hitler in Germany; picked up political support during the economic chaos of the Great Depression; advocated authoritarian state under a single leader, aggressive foreign policy to reverse humiliation of the Versailles treaty; took power in Germany in 1933.

2

Churchill, Winston

(1874-1965) British prime minister during World War II; responsible for British resistance to German air assaults.

3

blitzkrieg

German term for lightning warfare; involved rapid movement of airplanes, tanks, and mechanized troop carriers; resulted in early German victories over Belgium, Holland, and France in World War II.

4

Vichy

French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans.

5

Battle of Britain

The 1940 Nazi air offensive including saturation bombing of London and other British cities, countered by British innovative air tactics and radar tracking of German assault aircraft.

6

Holocaust

Term for Hitler's genocide of European Jews during World War II; resulted in deaths of 6 million Jews.

7

Battle of the Bulge

Hitler's last-ditch effort to repel the invading Allied armies in the winter of 1944-1945.

8

Pearl Harbor

American naval base in Hawaii; attack by Japanese on this facility in December 1941 crippled American fleet in the Pacific and caused entry of United States into World War II.

9

Battle of the Coral Sea

World War II Pacific battle; United States and Japanese forces fought to a standoff

10

Midway Island

World War II Pacific battle; decisive U.S. victory over powerful Japanese carrier force.

11

United Nations

International organization formed in the aftermath of World War II; included all of the victorious Allies; its primary mission was to provide a forum for negotiating disputes.

12

Tehran Conference

Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1943; agreed to opening of a new front in France.

13

Yalta Conference

Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1945; agreed to Soviet entry into the Pacific war in return for possessions in Manchuria, organization of the United Nations; disputed the division of political organization in the eastern European states to be reestablished after the war.

14

Potsdam Conference

Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union just before the end of World War II in 1945; Allies agreed upon Soviet domination in eastern Europe; Germany and Austria to be divided among victorious Allies.

15

total war

Warfare of the 20th century; vast resources and emotional commitments of belligerent nations were marshaled to support military effort; resulted from impact of industrialization on the military effort reflecting technological innovation and organizational capacity.

16

Atlantic Charter of 1941

World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live; indicated sympathy for decolonization.

17

Quit India movement

Mass civil disobedience campaign that began in the summer of 1942 to end British control of India.

18

Muslim League

Founded in 1906 to better support demands of Muslims for separate electorates and legislative seats in Hindu-dominated India; represented division within Indian nationalist movement.

19

Jinnah, Muhammad Ali

(1876-1948) Muslim nationalist leader in India; originally a member of the Nationalist Congress party; became leader of Muslim League; traded Muslim support for British during World War II for promises of a separate Muslim state after the war; first president of Pakistan.

20

Convention Peoples party (CPP)

Political party established by Kwame Nkrumah in opposition to British control of colonial legislature in Gold Coast.

21

Kenyatta, Jomo

(1946-1978) Leader of the nonviolent nationalist party in Kenya; organized the Kenya Africa Union (KAU); failed to win concessions because of resistance of white settlers; came to power only after suppression of the Land Freedom Army, or Mau Mau. 

22

Kenya African Union (KAU)

Leading nationalist party in Kenya; adopted nonviolent approach to ending British control in the 1950s.

23

Land Freedom Army

Radical organization for independence in Kenya; frustrated by failure of nonviolent means, initianted campaign of terror in 1952; referred to by British as the Mau Mau.

24

Nationalist Liberation Front (FLN)

Radical nationalist movement in Algeria; launched sustained guerrilla war against France in the 1950s; success of attacks led to independence of Algeria in 1958.

25

Secret Army Organization (OAS)

Organization of French settlers in Algeria; led guerrilla war following independence during the 1960s; assaults directed against Arabs, Berbers, and French who advocated independence.

26

Afrikaner National Party

Emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948; advocated complete independence from Britain; favored a rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid.

27

apartheid

Policy of strict racial segregation imposed in South Africa to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically.

28

Haganah

Zionist military force engaged in violent resistance to British presence in Palestine in the 1940s.

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