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Flashcards in 333 midterm 2 Deck (80)
1

organs that get a lot of blood

liver/digestive tract, skeletal muscle, kidneys

2

organs that get little blood

heart, skin, bone/tissues, brain

3

blood flow slowest in capillaries because

biggest cross-sectional area
most vessels in parallel

4

pulse pressure

systolic bp - diastolic bp

5

mean arterial pressure (MAP)

diastolic bp + 1/3 pulse pressure
average pressure propelling blood to tissues

6

arterial blood pressure affected by

how much elastic arteries can be stretched, volume of blood forced into them (SV)

7

driving force / resistance =

flow (force?)
F = delta P/R = driving force / resistance

8

R = _____ / _____

R = (viscosity x length) / r^4

9

most important source of resistance in blood vessels

vessel diameter - can change very quickly to regulate flow

10

short term regulation of bp

neural control
baroreceptors/chemoreceptors in large arteries to vasomotor center in medulla

11

intermediate term regulation of bp

chemical control (hormones, drugs)

12

long term regulation of bp

kidney regulation of blood volume

13

Renin - Angiotensin II

responds to low BP
leads to vasoconstriction and increased blood volume to increase bp back to normal levels

14

inactive angiotensinogen released by ___

liver

15

decreased bp leads to release of ____ by ___

renin by kidneys

16

renin and other enzymes lead to convert inactive ___ to active ____

convert inactive angiotensinogen to active angiotensin II

17

ANP to control bp

in response to high bp
released by heart

18

hydrostatic pressure

force exerted by fluid (blood) pressing against wall

19

osmotic pressure

pressure created by non-diffusible molecules (plasma proteins)

20

without plasma proteins...

less fluid would enter capillary

21

opsonization

process or priming cells for phagocytosis
coating cells with opsins
receptors on phagocyte recognize opsins --> phagocytosis

22

steps to phagocyte mobilization

1. leukocytosis - neutrophils enter blood from bone marrow
2. margination - neutrophils cling to capillary wall
3. diapedesis - neutrophils flatten and squeeze out of capillary
4.chemotaxis - neutrophils follow chemical trail diffusing from inflamed site
neutrophils arrive first, them macrophages

23

2 chemical defense mechanisms

interferons and complement system

24

interferons

interfere with viral replication and protein synthesis
targets all viruses - non specific

25

complement system

group of plasma proteins that leads to phagocytosis and lysis of microbes

26

MAC

membrane attack complex (part of complement system)

27

2 types of adaptive defense

humoral immunity - antibody mediated
cell mediated

28

immune portion of antigens

determinants

29

stem region of antibodies

determines class of antibody (5 classes)

30

TCR

T - cell receptor
receptors on surface of T cells that bind MHC-antigen complexes

31

cytokines

glycoproteins that serve as chemical messengers
stimulate or suppress immune system
innate and adaptive immunity
ex: interferons

32

what cells participate in cell mediated immunity

T cells (helper and cytotoxic)

33

MHC class I found on

all cells except RBCs

34

MHC class II found on

APCs - macrophage, dendritic cells, B cells

35

MHC class I present ____ antigens

endogenous

36

MHC class II present ____ antigens

exogenous

37

MHC class I presents to

cytotoxic T cells

38

MHC class II presents to

helper T cells

39

helper T cells produce

cytokines

40

pulmonary ventilation

movement of air into and out of lungs

41

external respiration

gas exchange in lungs

42

transport of respiratory gases

between tissues and the lungs

43

internal respiration

gas exchange at tissues

44

2 zones of respiratory system

conducting - cleans, humidifies, and warms air
respiratory- gas exchange

45

respiratory epithelium

PCCE - pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

46

_____ part of ethmoid bone

inferior nasal conchae

47

nasopharynx

air passage only
closed off by uvula
PCCE
pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
auditory tubes

48

oropharynx

food and air
stratified squamous epithelium
lingual and palatine tonsils

49

laryngopharynx

food and air
stratified squamous epithelium
continuous with esophagus

50

true vocal cords

vocal fold
directly surround glottis
length controls pitch
white

51

fast vocal cords

vestibular folds

52

tissues in trachea and primary bronchi...

PCCE

53

smooth muscle ____ as move down tree

increases, controls bronchioles

54

Type 1 alveolar cells

simple squamous epithelium
no cilia
little muscle
huge surface area

55

type II alveolar cells

5%
septal cells
round/cuboidal cells
secrete surfactant

56

surfactant

reduces surface tension of alveoli

57

Boyle's Law

P1V1 = P2V2
pressure and volume are inversely proportional
increase in volume will reduce pressure

58

intrapleural pressure is always....

less than intrapulmonary pressure
keeps lungs from collapsing

59

forces acting to collapse lung

elasticity of lungs - want to assume smallest position
alveolar surface tension

60

forces resisting lung collapse

elasticity of chest wall
surface tension of serous fluids keep lungs stuck to chest wall

61

intrapulmonary pressure ____ during inspiration and ____ during expiration

decreases during inspiration
increases during expiration

62

atelectasis, caused by

lung collapse
caused by plugged bronchiole or chest wound

63

pneumothorax

entry of air into pleural cavity
result in collapsed lung (atelectasis)

64

inhalation is always ____ because lung must be "pulled open" further

inhalation always active
diaphragm contracts (moves down)

65

IRDS

infant respiratory distress syndrome
premature infant does not produce surfactant until 2 month before birth
unable to keep alveoli from collapsing
treated with glucocorticoids

66

lung compliance

stretchiness of lung - how easy it is for lung to expand
healthy lungs = high compliance

67

compliance diminished by...

reduced resilience of lung (fibrosis)
reduced surfactant production
decrease flexibility of thoracic cavity

68

emphysema

lungs lose elasticity and cannot recoil
lungs become overly compliant

69

functional residual capacity

amount of air in lungs following tidal expiration
expiratory reserve volume + residual volume

70

vital capacity

total amount of exchangeable air

71

___ is more soluble in water than ___

CO2 more soluble than O2

72

atmospheric air has more __ and __ but less __ and __ than alveolar air

sea air has more O2 and N2 but less H20 and CO2

73

during exercise you increase tidal volume to include..

inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes

74

2 ways oxygen is transported

bound to hemoglobin in RBCs (98.5%)
dissolved in plasma (1.5%)

75

right shift in oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve

favors unloading of oxygen
increased temp, increased CO2, decreased pH, presence of BPG (byproduct of glycolysis in RBC)

76

3 ways carbon dioxide is transported

dissolved in plasma (7-10%)
bound to hemoglobin (20%)
bicarbonate ion in plasma (70%)

77

enzyme that catalyzes CO2 --> H2CO3 -->HCO3

carbonic anhydrase

78

exchange at tissues...

CO2 come into capillary from tissues
O2 leaves capillary, into tissues

79

exchange at lungs..

O2 leaves lungs, into tissues
CO2 leaves tissues, into lungs

80

major chemical determinant of respiration rate

CO2