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Flashcards in Z332 final Deck (275)
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1

Primary sex organs

production of gametes and sex hormones
gonads = testes and ovaries

2

secondary (accessory) sex organs

transporting and sustaining gametes

3

hormones

chemical signals produced by endocrine (ductless) glands
long distance in blood and/or lymph
prolonged effects

4

erectile tissue

corpus spongiosum and corpus cavernosa

5

scrotal temp

normal body temp 37 C, scrotal temp ~3 lower
necessary for normal spermatogenesis, higher temps --> decreased fertility

6

dartos and cremaster muscles

control surface area and distance from body
control scrotal temp

7

pampiniform plexus

countercurrent heat exchange
network of veins and arteries, cool venous blood absorbs heat from arterial blood

8

ways to control scrotal temp

dartos and cremaster muscles
pampiniform plexus
sweat glands
lack of fat layer

9

cryptorchidism

undescended testes
typically descend from abdominal cabity 1-2 months before birth
unilateral or bilateral
reduced fertility and increased risk of testicular cancer

10

seminal vesicle

60-70% vol of semen
bicarbonate (increase pH), prostaglandins, fructose, citrate, coagulating proteins, ions

11

prostate

25% vol of semen
citrate (increase pH), enzymes break down clot, seminalplasmnin (antibiotic), ions

12

bulbourethral gland

~1% vol semen
mucous/lubrication, increase pH to neutralize urethra

13

benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

enlargement of prostate, elderly men, hormone level change with age, risk of bladder infections, kidney damage

14

prostate cancer

second most common cancer death, androgen dependent, cancerous tissue leaks more PSA (prostate specific antigen) into circulation

15

spermatogenesis

400 million/day
in seminiferous tubules
diploid spermatogonia stem cells --> haploid sperm
spermatids to mature sperm: elongation, get rid of excess cytoplasm, form tail

16

mitosis end product

2 daughter cells identical to each other and parent
diploid
produce cells for growth and repair

17

meiosis end product

4 daughter cells genetically different from each other and parent
haploid
produce cells for reproduction = gametes (sperm and eggs)

18

spermatogonia

diploid stem cell, divides by mitosis

19

at puberty...

2 types of daughter cells (A and B) from spermatogonia mitosis

20

type A daughter cells from spermatogonia

stays at basal lamina

21

type B daughter cells from spermatogonia

moves toward lumen
becomes primary spermatocyte

22

primary spermatocyte

goes through meiosis

23

after meiosis I

2 haploid secondary spermatocytes

24

after meiosis II

four total haploid spermatids

25

sperm head

mostly nucleus/DNA
genetic

26

acrosome

contains hydrolytic enzymes for penetrating egg

27

midpiece of sperm

lots of mitochondria for energy
metabolic

28

sperm tail

flagellum
locomotor

29

leydig cells

secrete testosterone

30

sertoli cells

sustentocytes
supportive roles, nutrients
move cells to lumen
secrete testicular fluid
phagocytosis
chemicals to regulate spermatogenesis
blood-testis barrier
secrete ABP and inhibin (high sperm count = high inhibin)