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Flashcards in Z 342 lab final Deck (77)
1

outer and middle ear function in

hearing only

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inner ear function in

hearing and equilibrium

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auricle/pinna

elastic cartilage; funnels sound waves into external auditroy meatus; helix = rim; lobule = earlobe

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external auditory meatus

transmits sound to eardrum; temporal bone

5

tympanic membrane

eardrum; connective tissue, vibrates and transfers sound energy to tiny bones of middle ear

6

middle ear

tympanic cavity; small air-filled musosa lined cavity in temporal bone; malleus, incus, stapesl; opening to auditory tube

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inner ear

bony  labyrinth: perylymph; 3 regions: vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea;                           membranous labyrinth: endolymph    

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vestibulo....

balance

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cochlear

hearing

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physiology of hearing

1. sounds waves vibrate tympanic membrane 2. auditory ossicles vibrat, pressure amplified 3. pressure waves by stapes push on oval window, move through fluuid in scala vestibuli 4. sounds with frequencies below hearing level do not excite har cells 5. sounds in hearing range go through cochlear duct, vicration basilar membrane and deflecting hairs on inner hair cells   

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auditory pathway

ascending; auditory info from cochlear receptors (inner hair cells) to cerebral cortex

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vestibular apparatus

sends signals to brain that initiate reflexes needed to make changes in position

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vestibule

sense of static equilibrium (gravity) - key role in maintaining posture; maculae in vestibule wall

14

semicircular canals

sense of dynamic equilibrium (rotation), receptors for rotational head movement; cristae at base of each canal

15

maculae hair cells

monitor position of head in space, key role in controlling posture

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otoliths

ear stones increase membrane's weigth over hair cells and resistance to changes in motion; hairs verticle when head upright; hair cells synapse with fibers of vestibular nerve

17

cristae hair cells

cristae is receptor for roational acceleration in semicircular canals; rotational movement - endolympth moves capula in opposite direction

18

differences between nervous and endocrine

endocrine: slower, long term effects, affect target cells (specific or most of body)

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similarites between nervous and endocrine

communication and coordination of responses, some organs shared, stimulated by sensory input by neurons, hypothalamic control of both (endocrine and autonomic NS)

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exocrine glands

produce non hormonal substances

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endocrine glands

produce hormones (single or many), variable stimuli elicit hormone secretion

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master regulator of endocrine system

hypothalamus

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9 pituitary hormones

ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, MSH, ADH

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posterior pituitary hormones

oxytocin and ADH

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amino acid based hormones

water soluble, free in blood, acts on cell membrane receptors, shorter half life

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steroid based hormones

fat soluble, via carrier proteins in blood, acts on receptors inside cell, longer half life, snythesized from choleserol, only gonadal and adrenocortical hormone are steroids

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humoral stimulus

ion concentration in blood

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neural stimulus

stress, preganglionic, sypathetic nerve fibers

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hormonal stimulus

hormones secreted by hypothalamus

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negative feedback

production of end product inhibits production of intermediary product

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permissiveness

hormone needs another to have full effect

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synergism

effects of presence of 2 hormones together is amplified

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antagonism

one hormone opposes the action of another

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TRH

thyrotropin releasing hormone; produced and released by hypothalamus, target cells: anterior pituitary that release TSH

35

TSH

thyroid stimulation hormone; produced and released by anterior pituitary, target cells: cells of thyrid gland

36

TH

thyroid hormone (T3 or T4); produced and released by thyroid, target cells: al cells of body, metabolic rate of body

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GnRH

gonadotropin releasing hormone; produced and released by hypothalamus; target cells: anterior pituitary that produce FSH adn LH

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GH

growth hormone; produced and released by anterior pituitary; target cells: all cells of body

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GHRH

growth hormone releasing hormone; produced and secreted by hypothalamus; target cells: cells of  anterior pituitary that make GH

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GHIH

growth hormone inhibiting hormone, somatostatin; produced and released by hypothalamus; target cells: anterior pituitary that mke GH

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IGFs

insulin like growth factors, somatomedians; produced and released by liver; target cells: all cells of body

42

PTH

paraythroid hormone; produced and released by parathyroid glands; target cells: bone, GI tract, kidney

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calcitonin

produced and released by thyroid gland; target cells: bone, GI tract, kidney

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glucagon

produced and released by pancreas; target cells: muscle, liver, fat

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insulin

produced and released by pancreas; target cells: all cells except neural

46

FSH

follicle stimulating hormone; produced and released by pituitary; target cells: gonads (sustentacular cells of male, follicle cells of femal)

47

LH

lutenizing hormone; produced and released by anterior pitutiary; target cells: gonads (interstitial leydig cells in male, follicle cells and eggs of female)

48

testosterone

produced and released by leydig (interstitial) cells of testes; target cells: all cells of body, sustentacular (sertoli) cells

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estrogen

produced and released by follicle cells of ovaries, placenta; target cells: all cells, uterus, ovary

50

inhibin

produced and released by cells of testes and ovary; target cells: hypothalamus, anterior pituitary that make FSH

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progesterone

produced and released by follicle cells of ovary (corpus luteum); target cells: uterus, breasts

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CRH

corticotropin releasing factor; produced and released by hypothalamus; target cells: anterior pituitary that make ACTH

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ACTH

adrenocorticotropic hormone; produced and  released by anterior pituitary; target cells: adrenal cortex

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epinephrine/norepinephrine

produced and released by adrenal medulla; target cells: all cells of body

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glucocorticoids

cortisol, corticosterone, etc; produced and released by adrenal cortex; target cells: liver, all body cells

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steriod hormones are synthesized from

cholesterol

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seminal vesicles

enhance sperm motility and fertility; yellow, viscous alkaline fluid w/fructose, ascorbic acid, coagulate, and prostaglandins, 70% of volume

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prostate gland

activates sperm; milky, slightly acidid, citrate, enzymes, 30% of semen

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bulbourethral gland

neutralizes traces of acidic urine in urethra, thick, clear mucus

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path of sperm

testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, penis

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semen + sperm

10% sperm, 20-150 million sperm, pH 7.3-7.7

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estrogen released by

follicel cells

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progesterone released by

corupus luteum

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fibrous tunic

cornea and sclera

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sclera

white of eye

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cornea

outer covering, light bending

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pupil constricts as circular muscles

contract

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pupil dilated as radial muscles

contract (circular muscles relax)

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superior oblique

move eye down and laterally; trochlear (IV)

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inferior oblique

move eye up and laterally; oculomotor (III)

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lateral rectus

abducens (VI)

72

superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique

oculomotor (III)

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3 tunics of eye

fibrous = sclera  and cornea; vascular = choroid, ciliary body, iris; neural = 2 layered retina

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crystalins

proteins that make up lens

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accommodation

change in lens shape to focus on near object ; when ciliary muscle relaxes, suspensory ligaments stretch on lens which flattens it; when ciliary muscle contracts there is less pressure to stretch so lens is fat

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optic chiasm

where sides cross in visual pathway

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