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Flashcards in Z 343 lab Deck (49)
1

3 functions of blood

transportation of gases, nutrients, vitamins regulation of pH, temp, etc. protection

2

2 components of blood

plasma (water, proteins, solutes) formed elements (erythrocytes and buffy coat (leukocytes, platelets))

3

erythrocytes

RBCs most common formed element anucleate and missing most other organelles disc shaped, 7-8 microns contains hemoglobin

4

hemoglobin

carries O2, 23% of CO2, also regulates blood flow and pressure

5

determining levels of hemoglobin useful in....

classifying cause of anemia (lack of RBCs v. lack of hemoglobin in RBCs) rupture RBCs and measure intensity of color to determine hemoglobin content of sample

6

anemia

reduction in O2 carrying capacity in blood

7

aplastic anemia

caused by failure of red bone marrow to produce RBCs

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iron deficiency anemia

decrease in hemoglobin production due to inadequate iron

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sickle cell anemia

inherited condition hemoglobin misshaped resulting in reduce O2 carrying capacity

10

polycythemia

higher than normal volume of red blood cells

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hematocrit

rough measure of O2 carrying ability of blood centrifuge blood and measure volume occupied by RBCs

12

PCV/HB

measures amount of hemoglobin per unit of RBC

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agglutinins

antibodies in blood plasma that react with antigens not found on RBCs of individual

14

universal donor

O+

15

universal recipient

AB+

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Rh

antigen first discovered by rhesus monkeys most people Rh+

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in Rh- individuals...

anti-Rh antibodies are not innately found produced by immune system after exposure to Rh+ blood subsequent exposure to Rh+ blood can cause severe reactions

18

platelets

anucleate cell fragments small 2-4 microns. aids in stopping blood loss by forming platelet plug, releasing chemicals that promote blood clotting, releasing chemicals that promote vascular spasm

19

platelets formed by

splintering of megakaryocytes in red bone marrow

20

vascular spasm

contraction of smooth muscle in artery/arteriole walls

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granular leukocytes

neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil

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agranular leukocytes

monocyte, lymphocyte

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neutrophil

50-70% of all WBCs (leukocytes) polymorphonuclear - nuclei are polymorphic, varying number of lobes (2-5) medium sized 10-12 microns

24

function of neutrophils

bacteria killers chemically attracted to sites of inflammation attacks bacteria by phagocytosis

25

lymphocyte

20-25% of all WBCs large nucleus that occupies most of volume small 6-9 microns or large 10-14 microns

26

lymphocyte function

B cells: give rise to antibody producing cells T cells: directly attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells, some bacteria increases in diverse infections and immune responses

27

monocytes

3-8% of all WBCs kidney shaped nucleus largest of WBCs 12-20 microns

28

monocyte functions

once it leaves capillaries, transforms into wandering macrophages macrophages destroy viruses, some bacteria, and clean up dead tissue by phagocytosis

29

eosinophil

2-4% of WBCs nucleus 2-3 lobes connected by thin strand granules appear red-orange with acidic dye 10-12 microns

30

eosinophil function

targets certain parasitic worms - gather around and releases digestive chemicals allergic responses, asthma

31

basophils

<1% of WBC large dark purple, irregularly sized granules nucleus irregularly shaped, bilobed but cant see 8-10 microns

32

basophil function

involved in inflammatory and allergy reactions - herapin, histamine, serotonin to increase inflammatory response increase with allergic reactions, leukemia, diabetes, autoimmune disorders

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leukocytes most common to least common

N L M E B

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leukemia

abnormal levels of WBC produce more but immature and not functional

35

hemocytoblast

first stem cell for hematopoiesis

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myeloid stem cell

into erythrocyte, platelets, eosinophil, basophil, neutrophil, and monocyte

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lymphoid stem cell

into T cell, B cell natural killer cells

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megakaryocyte

give rise to platelets

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normal sinus rhythm

40

sinus arrhythmia

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sinus bradycardia

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sinus tachycardia

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atrial fibrilation

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atrial flutter

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premature ventricular contraction

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junctional rhythm

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ventricular tachycardia

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AV block

49