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Flashcards in Nervous system (lab) Deck (64)
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Central Nervous System

brain and spinal cord, processes info

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Peripheral Nervous System

cranial and spinal nerves, transmits info

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PNS divided into

Sensory (afferent, input), motor (efferent, output)

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Motor neurons divide into

autonomic (organs and glands) and somatic (to skeletal muscles)

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Sensory neurons divide into

somatic (from skin) and visceral (from organs and glands)

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Autonomic motor neurons divide into

sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (rest and digest)

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Neural tissue derived form

ectoderm

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cell body contains

nucleus, rough ER (Nissl bodies), organelles, neurotransmitter synthesis

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dendrites

projections from cell body or at end of axon, receive signal,

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axon

long extension, ions for signal transmission, electrically insulated by myelin

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nodes of Ranvier

intervals where myelin is interrupted on along axon, regular intervals

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myelin

fatty sheath that insulates

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synaptic vesicles

on axonal terminals, release neurotransmitter

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axon hillock

where axon meets cell body

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nerve

bundle of axons in PNS

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white matter

bundles of axons in the CNS

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appears white due to

myelin around axons

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gray matter

clusters of cell bodies in CNS (unmyelinated)

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ganglia

clusters of cell bodies in PNS

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biggest part of brain

cerebrum

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cerebral cortex

outer bark of folded gray matter (clusters of cell bodies)

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subcortical gray matter nuclei

islands of gray matter deep within brain

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cells of neural tube become

CNS

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neural crest cells

some cells break away from neural folds, will form portions of PNS

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organization similar

muscles: endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium

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multipolar neuron

dendrites on cell body, axon at end of process, abundant in CNS

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bipolar neuron

cell body in center, flat, dendrites and axons at end of processes on either side, special senses, receptive zone until other side of cell body

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unipolar (pseudounipolar) neuron

cell body in center, raised, axons and dendrites at ends, conductive some length of projections, abundant in PNS

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astrocytes

CNS, blood/brain barrier, provides nutrients and support to neurons, most abundant, guide neural development, damage repair, 3D framework, recycle neurotransmitters

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oligodendrocytes

CNS, myeliantes neurons of CNS, multiple per oligodendrocyte

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microglia

CNS, immune cells of CNS, attack pathogens, remove neuronal debris, migrate through neural tissue

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ependymal cells

CNS, make cerebrospinal fluid, lines CNS cavities, moves CSF (some ciliated/microvilli

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schwann cells

PNS, myelinates neurons of PNS, one neuron per schwann cell

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satellite cells

PNS, surrounds neuron, provides nutrients, controls environment

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neural plate becomes

neural groove

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neural folds

raised edges of neural plate

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neural fold meet to form

neural tube

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notochord

rod of mesodermal tissue under neural plate, will become vertebral column

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3 primary brain vesicles from anterior neural tube

prosencephalon (forebrain)
mesencephalon (midbrain)
rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

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secondary brain vesicles from prosencephalon

telencephalon, diencephalon

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secondary brain vesicles from mesencephalon

mesencephalon

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secondary brain vesicles from rhombencephalon

metencephalon, myelencephalon

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adult brain structures from telencephalon

cerebrum, lateral ventricles

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adult brain structures from diencephalon

diencephalon (thalamus), third ventricle

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adult brain structures from mesencephalon

brain stem: midbrain; cerebral aqueduct

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adult brain structures from metencephalon

brain stem: pons, cerebellum; fourth ventricle

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adult brain structures from myelencephalon

brain stem: medulla oblongata; fourth ventricle

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spina bifida

incomplete closure of neural tube

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Dura mater

Outer layer of spinal cord

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Arachnoid mater

Middle layer of spinal column protection

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Pia mater

Inner layer of spinal cord protection

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Graded membrane potential

Due to ionic movement across cell, dies out as it spreads away from initial site

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Action potential

Predictable change in transmembrane potential due to opening of specific voltage gates channels

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Threshold

Membrane potential value that opens voltage gates channel

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2 factors that affect velocity of action potential

Diameter, myelinated or not

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As diameter of axon increases

Velocity of action potential increases

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Saltatory conduction

Jumping effect of AP from nodes of ranvier

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A fibers

Largest diameter, myelinated, fastest

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B fibers

Medium diameter, myelinated

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C fibers

Smallest diameter, unmyelinated, slowest

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Inhibitory signal

Generate hyperpolarizing graded potentials

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Excitatory signal

Generate depolarizing graded potentials

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Spatial summation

Single post synaptic neuron receives signal from many pre synaptic. Transmembrane is combination of all

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Temporal summation

Only 2 neurons communicate, release neurotransmitter repeatedly and builds