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Flashcards in midterm 2 Deck (100)
1

number of bones of axial skeleton

80

2

number of named openings of skill

85

3

cranial bones

frontal, 2 parietal, occipital, 2 temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid = 8 total

4

site of attachment for ligamentum nuchae

occipital bone

5

keystone cranial bone

sphenoid, articulates with all other cranial bones

6

3 pairs of sphenoid processes

great wings, lesser wings, pterygoid processes

7

facial bones

mandible, 2 maxillary, 2 zygomatic, 2 nasal, 2 lacrimal, 2 palatine, vomer, 2 inferior nasal conchae

8

largest, strongest bone of face

mandible

9

only freely movable joint in skill

temporomandibular

10

keystone facial bones

maxillary, articulate with all except mandible

11

lacrimal fossa

houses lacrimal sac

12

shape of vomer

plow

13

largest conchae

inferior nasal conchae

14

orbit bones

maxilla, lacrimal, ethmoid, frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, palatine

15

medial wall of orbit

maxilla, lacrimal, ethmoid, sphenoid

16

floor of orbit

palatine, maxilla, zygomatic

17

later wall of orbit

frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic

18

roof of orbit

sphenoid lesser wings, frontal

19

roof, lateral, floor nasal cavity bones

ethmoid, palatine, maxillary, inferior nasal conchae

20

nasal septum bones

ethmoid, vomer, anterior septal cartilage

21

sinuses

frontal, ethmoid. maxillary, sphenoid

22

paranasal sinuses

small openings that connect sinuses to nasal cavity

23

movable base for tongue

hyoid bone

24

attachment for speech and swallowing muscles

hyoid bone

25

5 regions of vertebrae

cervical (7), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), sacrum (5 fused), coccyx (3-5 fused)

26

intervertebral disks made of

fibrocartilage

27

characteristics of cervical

transverse foramen, split spinous process

28

characteristics of thoracic

giraffe, spinour process points down, circular foramen

29

characteristics of lumbar

moose, flat short spinous process, triangle foramen

30

atlas

C1, no body, no spinous process, "yes"

31

axis

C2, dens projects into atlas, "no"

32

manubrium articulates with

clavicles and ribs 1 and 2

33

sternum body articulates with

costal cartilage of ribs 2-7

34

xiphoid process site of

site of muscle attachment

35

true ribs

1-7

36

false/floating

8-12, 11-12 floating

37

clavicle acromial end

flattened, smooth superior

38

clavicle sternal end

cone shaped

39

number of bones in upper limb

30 (humerus, radius, ulna, 8 carpals, 5 metacarpals, 14 phalanges)

40

head of radius articulates with

capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna

41

carpals that form wrist joint

scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum

42

pollex

thumb

43

female cavity of true pelvis

broad, shallow, greater capacity

44

male cavity of true pelvis

narrow and deep, tilted less forward

45

femur articulates with

acetabulum proximally, tibia and patella distally

46

medial leg bone

tibia

47

fibula articulates with

tibia (proximal and distal)

48

number of tarsal bones

7

49

body weight carries by what tarsals

talus and calcaneus

50

3 arches of foot

lateral longitudinal, medial longitudinal, transverse

51

axial skeleton

skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage

52

areolar ct found

in synovial membranes

53

structural joint classification

fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

54

functional joint classifications

synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis

55

fibrous joint types

sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses

56

syndesmoses

fibrous joint, bones connected by ligaments, movement depends on fiber length, ex: inferior tibiofibular joint, interosseous membranes

57

gomphoses

peg in socket, teeth

58

periodontal ligament

fibrous connection of teeth

59

cartilaginous joint types

synchondroses (synarthrotic), symphyses (amphiarthrotic)

60

synchondroses

plate of hyaline cartilage unites bones

61

6 features of synovial joints

articular cartilage, synovial cavity, joint capsule, synovial fluid, reinforcing ligaments, nerves and blood vessels

62

synovial fluid functions

lubrication, shock absorption, nutrient distribution

63

fat pads

superficial to joint capsule, protect articular cartilages

64

bursae

pockets of synovial fluid

65

3 joints of knee

femoropatellar (plane), lateral and medial tibiofemoral (bicondylar, hinge)

66

knee joint unique because...

only partially enclosed by joint capsule, only sides and back

67

menisci

medial and lateral, at femur tibia articulations

68

number of bursae in knee

12

69

3 anterior ligaments from quadriceps tendon

medial and lateral patellar retinacula, patellar ligament

70

capsular and extracapsular ligaments

prevent hyperextension: fibular and tibial collateral ligaments, oblique popliteal, arcuate popliteal ligaments

71

intracapsular ligaments

prevent anterior-posterior displacement, outside synovial cavity: anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament

72

7 ligaments of knee joint

patellar ligament, 2 popliteal ligaments, ACL, PCL, tibial collateral ligament, fibular collateral ligament

73

Three C's

collateral ligaments, cruciate ligaments, cartilages

74

most freely moving joint in body

shoulder

75

most important shoulder stabilizer

muscle tendons crossing shoulder

76

4 rotator cuff tendons

subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor

77

anular ligament

in elbow, surrounds head of radius

78

2 capsule ligaments in elbow

ulnar and radial collateral ligament, prevent side to side movement

79

acetabular labrum

rim of fibrocartilage, enhanced depth of socket

80

reinforcing ligaments of hip

iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral, ligamentum teres

81

most easily dislocated joint

temporomandibular

82

2 types of movement in temporomandibular

hinge and gliding

83

luxations

dislocations

84

subluxation

partial dislocation

85

synovitis

beginning of rheumatoid arthritis, inflamed synovial membrane thickens

86

pannus

erodes cartilage, in RA

87

tumor necrosis factor

in RA treatment, block action of inflammatory chemicals

88

aponeurosis

collagen fibers of epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium come together for form broad sheet

89

genes in nuclei of muscle cells..

control production of enzymes and structural proteins for contaction

90

myoglobin

oxygen binding pigment, common in slow skeletal muscle fibers and cardiac muscles

91

glycosomes

stored glycogen that can be quickly converted to glucose

92

satellite cells

stem cells, repair injured fibers

93

triad

2 terminal cisterns and T tubule

94

synaptic cleft

space between axon terminal and muscle fiber

95

junctional folds

fold in sarcolemma at NMJ

96

acetylcholine

neurotransmitter

97

absolute refractory period

when sodium channels are still open, time of depolarization, even strong stimulus cant initiate second action potential

98

relative refractory period

second AP can be initiated, but only by larger than normal stimulus, K channels open

99

latent period

when E-C coupling events occur, time between AP initiation and beginning of contractions

100

rigor mortis

fixed muscle contraction after death, run out of ATP