Z332 midterm 1 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Z332 midterm 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Z332 midterm 1 Deck (154)
1

Neo-cortex

most of cerebral cortex in mammals
6 layers

2

Neuronal migration

cns neurons originate from progenitor cells in ventricular zone, remain in neural tube structures, cerebral cortex neurons travel several mm

3

neural tube defects associated with

folic acid deficiency

4

spina bifida

failure of neural tube to close at posterior end, mental retardation

5

anencephaly

failure of neural tube to close at rostral end, most die

6

PNS develops from

neural crest cells

7

contains trigger zone where action potentials are initiated

axon initial segment (AIS)

8

synapse

junction between two neurons or neuron and effector cell; transmits nerve impulse

9

afferent neurons

sensory, carry nerve impulses toward CNS

10

efferent neurons

motor, cause effect, carry impulse away from CNS

11

interneuron

between neurons, integrate information

12

multipolar neurons

most common, found in CNS and autonomic ganglia, interneurons, motor neurons

13

bipolar neurons

one axon one dendrite, rare, special senses

14

unipolar neurons

sensory, PNS, trigger zone at junction of dendrites and axon

15

sciatic nerve

longest and thickest nerve, spinal cord to bottom of foot, over 1 meter long, formed by 5 spinal nerves (L4-S3)

16

anterograde transport

cell body to axon synapse, slow and fast, pre-peptide precursors

17

retrograde transport

recycling proteins and neurotransmitters, mitochondria, fast only

18

ALS

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/ Lou Gehrig's disease, progressive lethal degenerative disorder of motor neurons, paralysis of voluntary muscles

19

concus medullaris

end of spinal cord ~L1-L2

20

epidural space between

dura mater and bone

21

CSF in space between

arachnoid mater and pia mater

22

lumbar puncture in

subarachnoid space

23

lumbar puncture measures

CSF pressure

24

high CSF pressure

cerebral edema, subarachoid hemorrhage, meningeal inflammation, meningitis

25

low CSF pressure

subarachnoid blockage, leaks, dehydration

26

spinal cord smaller caudally because

less sensory and motor tracts

27

more white matter cranially because

more sensory tracts cranially, more motor tracts caudally

28

posterior/dorsal horn

afferent neurons, ascending

29

anterior/ventral horn

efferent neurons, descending

30

epineurium continuous with

dura mater

31

spinal nerves emerge through

intervertebral foramina

32

mixed nerves

all spinal nerves, sensory and motor info

33

cervical plexus

C1-C5; neck, thoracic cavity, diaphragm; phrenic nerve

34

brachial plexus

C5-T1; pectoral girdle and upper limb
nerves: musculocutaneous, axillary, median, ulnar, radial

35

lumbar plexus

T12-L4; pelvic girdle and lower limb
nerves: femoral, obtruator

36

sacral plexus

L4-S4, pelvic girdle and lower limb
nerves: sciatic, tibial, common fibular

37

components of relex

receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron, effector

38

cranial nerves

olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal

39

Cranial nerve II

optic, vision/visual pathway

40

cranial nerve III

oculomotor, eye movement, 4 of 6 extrinsic eye muscles; control pupil diameter of iris

41

pupil constriction

circular muscles, parasympathetic innervation

42

pupil dilation

radial muscles, sympathetic innervation

43

Rest, Relax, aRousal, digest

parasympathetic

44

fight, fright, flight, fuck

sympathetic

45

reflex

stereotyped, involuntary unconscious response to stimuli
receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, motor neuron, effector

46

pupillary reflex

sensory nerve = optic (II)
motor nerve = oculomotor (III)

47

4 of 6 extrinsic eye muscles for oculomotor

superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique

48

cranial nerve IV

trochlear, eye movement superior oblique

49

cranial nerve V

trigeminal, 3 branches: ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular

50

ophthalmic branch of V

sensory of upper face (and cornea)

51

corneal reflex

sensory nerve = ophthalmic branch of trigeminal
motor = facial (VII)

52

maxillary branch of V

sensory to face (over mandible)

53

mandibular branch of V

sensory over mandible, tongue (tactile), muscles of mastication

54

cranial nerve VI

abducens, eye movement - lateral rectus

55

cranial nerve VII

facial; sensory: face and taste; motor: secretion of tears and saliva (parasympathetic), facial, scalp, and neck muscles

56

cranial nerve VIII

vestibulocochlear, hearing and balance

57

cranial nerve IX

glossopharyngeal; sensory: taste (posterior 1/3), blood pressure, CO2; motor: swallowing and speech

58

cranial nerve X

vagus; 75-80% of parasympathetic ANS; sensory: blood pressure, breathing rate and depth, touch in throat; motor: swallowing, coughing, voice production

59

gag reflex

sensory = glossophyrangeal
motor = vagus

60

cranial nerve XI

accessory; mediated head movement and pectoral girdle

61

cranial nerve XII

hypoglossal; swallowing, tongue movement during speech,

62

acoustic startle response

sensory= bestibulocochlear
motor = accessory (trapezius and sternocledomastoid)

63

somatic motor division does not have

ganglia

64

heavily myelated axons in ______ nervous system

somatic

65

sympathetic neurons release

norepinephrine ( and acetylcholine)

66

parasympathetic neurons release

acetylcholine

67

in autonomic, sensory inputs from

interoceptors (sensory receptors in viscera)

68

outputs of autonomic nervous system

limbic system, hypothalamus, spinal cord, brain stem, ganglia

69

effectors of autonomic nervous system

smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, adipose tissue

70

ANS pathways have

2 neurons, preganglionic neuron and postganglionic neuron

71

craniosacral

parasympathetic nerves

72

thoracolumbar

sympathetic neurons

73

long preganglionic fibers, short postganglionic

parasympathetic

74

short preglandlionic fibers, long postganglionic

sympathetic

75

ganglia in parasympathetic

in visceral effectors

76

ganglia in sympathetic

near spinal cord

77

postganglionic synapse of sympathetic release

ACh and NE

78

postganglionic synapse of parasympathetic release

ACh

79

all preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic cells release

ACh

80

cholinergic

fibers that release ACh

81

adrenergic

fibers that release NE

82

location of preganglionic neurons in parasympathetic

nuclei of cranial nerves, lateral gray horn sacral segments

83

1 kind of ganglia in parasympathetic

terminal ganglia, post ganglionic fibers go to single effector

84

parasympathetic has specific and localized...

actions

85

location of preganglionic neurons in sympathetic

lateral horns of spinal cord, thoracic to lumbar

86

2 types of ganglia in sympathetic

sympathetic trunk ganglia (above diaphragm), prevertebral (collateral) ganglia (below diaphragm)
...both close to spinal cord

87

from T5 down most preganglionic fibers synapse...

in collateral ganglia

88

can affect entire body simultaneously

sympathetic responses

89

parasympathetic acts to...

conserve and store energy
SLUDD (salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion, defecation)

90

sympathetic acts to...

prepare fora and maintain physical activity (exercise , excitement, embarrassment)

91

neurotransmitter action depends on

receptor it binds to

92

short vs. long lived effects

sympathetic = longer lived
parasympathetic = short lived

93

areas affected by sympathetic/parasympathetic

parasympathetic = local
sympathetic = whole body

94

synapse density sympathetic/parasympathetic

para = small, 1 pre 6 post
sympathetic = large, 1 pre 32 post

95

autonomic tone

balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic, regulated by hypothalamus

96

in awakened state body maintains ____ tone

sympathetic ex: book vessel diameter

97

rest

more parasympathetic

98

stress response

more sympathetic

99

layer protecting brain

skin, periosteum, bone, dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

100

dural sinuses

drain venous blood into internal jugular veins

101

no epidural space in skull

dura mater tight to skull (2 layer fused otherwise)

102

arachnoid villi

protrude through inner most layer of dura mater at dural sinuses, allows CSF to move form subarachoid space into dural sinuses

103

layer that is sheath for blood vessesl

pia mater

104

blood supply to brain

carotid arteries and vertebral arteries, through capillaries and to choroid plexuses to CSF

105

circle of willis

connects all major arteries to brain, redundancy

106

blood away from brain

dural sinuses drain into internal jugular veins

107

substances in blood must pass through...

endothelium of capillary, basal lamina, astrocyte feet

108

choroid plexuses (in all 4 ventricles)

produces CSF, blood-CSF barrier

109

where is CSF

ventricles, central canal of spinal cord, subarachnoid space

110

CSF flow

lateral ventricles, 3rd ventricle, 4th ventricle, central canal OR 4th ventricle, subarachnoid space, dural sinuses, jugular vein

111

hydrocephaly

blockage of CSF flow, big head, congenital birth defect

112

inner fish

brain stem

113

medulla oblongata

phylogentically old, vomiting, coughing, sneezing, hiccuping, swallowing, heart rate, respiratory

114

nucleus gracilis

medulla oblongata, relay nuclei and sensory/ascending somatic pathway, lower trunk and limbs

115

nucleus cuneatus

medulla oblongata, realy nuclei in sensory somatic pathway, upper trunk and limbs

116

pons

bridge, sensory and motor tracts, equilibrium, breathing rate

117

important structures in mesencephalon (midbrain)

superior and inferior collicului, substantia nigra, red nucleus

118

superior collicului

visual reflexes

119

inferior collicului

auditory reflexes

120

substantia nigra and red nucleus

control movement, substantia nigra is black from melanin (dopamine precursor)

121

Parkinson's disease

degeneration of substantia nigra neurons = less dopamine

122

cerebellum

smooths and regulates skeletal muscles, posture and balance

123

major structures of diencephalon

epithalamus (pineal gland), thalamus, hypothalamus

124

pineal gland

releases melatonin in response to photic cues

125

thalamus

relays sensory info to cortex, maintains consciousness, relays motor info from cerebellum to basal nuclei; connection between inner fish brain and neocortex

126

thalamic nuclei

limbic system involved with emotion and memory, relays sensory info, integrates sensory info, visual and auditory info

127

lateral geniculate nucleus

receives visual info, thalamic nuclei

128

medial geniculate nucleus

relays auditory info, thalamic nuclei

129

hypothalamus

activity of ANS, eating and thirst, temp, circadian rhythms, hormones, oxytocin

130

association fibes

connect different parts of same hemisphere

131

commissural fibers

connect corresponding gray areas of two hemispheres

132

projection fibers

connect cerebral cortex with lower brain centers (ascending and descending )

133

basal nuclei

areas of gray matter deep within cerebrum

134

central sulcus

separates motor and sensory areas, motor comes before sensory

135

primary sensory cortex

touch, pressure, pain, vibration, temp

136

somatosensory association area of brain

relationship of body parts, memory of somatosensory experiences,

137

multimodal association area

meaning to info, store in memory, link with previous experiences, decide what actions to take

138

prefrontal cortex

most complex, personality, intellect, reasoning, judgment, concern, abstract though, linked to limbic system, inhibiting impulsive behavior

139

wernicke's area

left parietal lobe, understanding language, damage causes aphasia, word salad, general interpretive area

140

primary motor cortex

controls voluntary contractions of specific muscle groups, response on opposite side of body, more area to muscles involved with skilled complex movement

141

premotor area

somatic motor association area, receives input from motor cortex and sensory association areas, complex and sequential learned motor activities

142

broca's area

control speech, damage leads to non fluent aphasia, understand but difficulty speaking, in left hemisphere

143

imparts emotion to speech

right side of brain

144

left brain

dominant 90% of time, reading, writing, math, decision making, speech and language, analysis

145

right brain

senses, recognition

146

limbic system

establishes emotional states, links conscious intellectual functions to unconscious autonomic functions, memory storage and retrieval;
complex and basal, evolutionary and anatomically more proximal to inner fish

147

limbic system functional grouping

hypothalamus at center, between cerebrum and diencephalon?

148

limbic lobe/cortex

critical to insight, motivation, mood, judgement, communicated directly with prefrontal lobe

149

hippocampus

short term memory to long term

150

mammilary bodies

recognition memories, smell to memories

151

amygdala

fear and aggression, memory of emotional events, afraid and angry behaviors

152

Cranial nerve nuclei in medulla oblongata

VIII, IX, X, XI, XII

153

Cranial nerve nuclei in pons

V VI VII VIII

154

Cranial nerve nuclei in mesencephalon

III IV