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Components of control mechanism

Receptor > afferent pathway > control center > efferent pathway > effector

1

Integral protein function

Transport, enzymes, receptors

2

Peripheral proteins

Cell-cell connection, shape

3

Glycocalux

Sugar covering at cell surface. Biological marker for cell recognition

4

Tight junction

Integral proteins fuse adjacent cells, impermeable

5

Gap junctions

Communicating, transmembrane proteins form pores

6

Demosomes

Rivets, reduces tearing

7

Ions move...

Positive to negative passively through membrane channels

8

Transmembrane potential (Na, K)

3 Na out, 2 K in. Excess sodium outside, potassium inside

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Polarization

Separation of charges

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Depolarization

Any shift from resting potential toward 0

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Repolarization

Restoring normal resting potential after depolarization

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Hyperpolarization

Increases negativity of resting potential

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Active transportation mediated by...

Sodium potassium pump

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Osmolarity

Total concentration of all solute particles in a solution

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Toxicity

Ability of a solution to change shape or tone of cells by altering cells internal water volume.

Isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic

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The "pump" in sodium potassium pump

ATPase

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Phagosome

Vesicles formed during phagocytosis

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Amoeboid motion

Movement during phagocytosis. Cytoplasm flows into temporary extensions, allows creeping

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Exocytosis activated by...

Cell surface signal or change in membrane voltage

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Mitochondria

Double membrane, own DNA RNA and ribosomes, divide by fission, generate ATP

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ribosomes

Protein synthesis

Free- soluble proteins for cytosol, mitochondria, organelles

Fixed- attached to ER, proteins for cell membranes or lysosomes or export from cell

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Rough ER

Manufactures excrete proteins and membrane proteins and phospholipids. Go to Golgi

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Smooth ER

Lipid metabolism, cholesterol and steroid based hormone synthesis, making lipids

Detox, glycogen to glucose (liver), store and release calcium in muscle cells

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Golgi

Modifies concentrates and packages proteins and lipids from rough ER. CID to trans

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Peroxisomes

Detoxify, neutralize free radicals

Liver and kidney

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Lysosomes

Have digestive enzymes, for phagocytosis, degrade mon functional organelles, break down bone for calcium and tissues

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Microfilaments

Thinnest, actin, motility and changes in shape, microvilli

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Intermediate filaments

Resist pulling, keratin in epidermis, woven rope, most stable and permanent,

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Microtubules

Largest, radiate from centrosome, tubulins

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Centrioles

Microtubules at center of centrosome

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Microvilli

Outfoldings of plasma membrane to increase surface area

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Abdominopelvic regions

Right hypochondriac(liver, gallbladder)
Epigastric (stomach)
Left hypochondriac (spleen)
Right lumbar (ascending colon) Umbilical (small intestine, transverse colon)
Left lumbar (descending colon) Right iliac (cecum, appendix)
Hypogastric (bladder)
Left iliac (sigmoid colon)

33

Parietal serious membrane

Outside layer

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Visceral serous membrane

Inside later, closest to organ

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4 tissue types

Epithelial connective muscle neural

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Lumen

Space inside hollow organ

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Gastrulation

Process of forming 3 embryonic tissue layers

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Ectoderm

Nerve tissue, epidermis, hair follicles, nails, glands

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Mesoderm

Muscle and connective tissue, dermis and hypodermis

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Endoderm

Inner lining of digestive system (epithelial all 3)

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2 types of epithelial tissue

Covering/lining -protection, permeability, sensation

Glandular - produce secretions

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Epithelial cell connections

Tight junctions and desmosomes

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Simple squamous epithelium

Diffusion and absorption. Thin

Lining central body cavities and blood vessels, kidney tubules, alveoli

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Simple cuboidal epithelium

Secretion and absorption

Walls if small ducts and glands

Kidney tubules, Ovary

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Simple columnar epithelium

Absorption and secretions, cilia propels mucus

Microvilli on apical surface

Digestive tract, bronchi, uterine tubes

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Stratified squamous epithelium

Protection, most widespread

Keratin adds strength and Water resistance

Dead top functional layer

Surface of skin, mouth, throat esophagus, rerun, anus, vagina

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Transitional epithelium

Resembles stratified squamous and cuboidal

Stretches.

Ureters, bladder, urethral

48

Merocrine gland

Exocrine gland that secretes products via exocytosis

Pancreas, swear, salivary

49

Holocrine gland

Accumulate until rupture

Sebaceous glands of skin

50

4 classes of connective tissue

CT proper - loose and dense
Cartilage
Bone
Blood

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Components of CT ground substance

Interstitial fluid
Cell adhesion proteins
Proteoglycans - trap water, more = more fluid

52

3 types of connective tissue fibers

Collagen - strongest, most
Elastic -
Reticular - type of collagen, short, fine, branched, more give

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Types of loose CT

Areolar - packaging material, stores water salt and far
Adipose - adipocytes
Reticular - soft internal skeleton, lymphoid organs

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Types of dense CT

Dense regular
Dense irregular
Elastic

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Dense regular CT

Tight parallel collagen fibers
Tendons and ligaments, fascia
Poorly vascularized

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Dense irregular CT

Interwoven collagen
Layered in skin
Around bone and cartilage
Capsules around organs

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Elastic CT

Dense regular with elastic fibers

Walls of aorta, connect vertebrae

58

Types of cartilage

Hyaline - most, embryonic skeleton, ends if long bones, costal ribs, nose
Elastic - ear, epiglottis
Fibrocartilage - thick collagen, absorb shock, intervertebral disks.

59

3 types of muscle

Skeletal - voluntary striated, multinucleate
Cardiac- involuntary, striated, branched, intercalated disks
Smooth- involuntary, non striated

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Tissues that regenerate very well

Epithelial, bone, areolar CT, dense irregular CT, blood

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Moderate regeneration

Smooth muscle and dense regular CT

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Weak regenerative capacity

Skeletal muscle and cartilage

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No regenerative capacity

Cardiac muscle and nervous tissue. Replaced by scar tissue

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Cutaneous membrane

Skin
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium attached to think layer of connective tissue

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Mucous membranes

Line cavities open to outside

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Serous membrane

Closed ventral cavity

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2 ways of tissue repair

Regeneration
Fibrosis - connective tissue replaces, function lost

Repair of skin involves both

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Epidermis tissue

Stratified squamous

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Dermis tissue

Dense irregular CT

70

Hypodermis

Adipose tissue, absorbs shock and insulates, anchors skin, mostly muscles, areolar tissue

71

Epidermis layers

Stratum basale/germanitivum
Spinosum
Granulosum
Lucidum (only thick)
Corneum

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Epidermis cell types

Keratinocytes
Melanocytes
Dendritic cells
Tactile cells

73

Stratum basale

Single row of stem cells, Melanocytes 10-15%, some tactile cells

74

Stratum spinosum

Prickly layer, pre keratin filaments, melanosomes and dendritic cells

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Stratum granulosum

Thin, cell appearance changes, flatten, keratinization begins, cells Accumulate lamellae granules, one this layer die

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Stratum lucidum

Only thick skin, thin translucent, dead keratinocytes

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Stratum corneum

Horney layer, 3/4 of epidermal thickness, acid mantel Outside layer

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Apoptosis

Cellular suicide, cells from basale to corneum. 50,000 cells every minute

79

Dermis cells

Fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells. WBC

80

Layers of dermis

Papillary- areolar CT, collagen and elastic, blood vessels,

Reticular- dense irregular CT, cleavage lines, 80% of thickness

81

Pigments of skin color

Melanin- made in skin, transferred to keratinocytes , difference is level of activity, not number

Carotene- yellow/orange, corneum and hypodermis

Hemoglobin- pink hue

82

Jaundice

Failure to excrete broken down hemoglobin pigments, yellow color

83

Vitiligo

Loss of melanocytes

84

Cyanosis

Blue color, reduction in tissue blood Flow or oxygenation

85

Hair bulb

Deep end, hair follicle receptor and sensory nerve endings , hair matrix- dividing area

86

Arrector pili

smooth muscle attached to follicle, goose bumps

87

Hair papilla

Dermal tissue blood supply

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3 layers of keritonized cells in hair

Medulla, cortex, cuticle

89

Alopecia

Hair thinning in both sexes after 40

90

True baldness

Sex influenced, genetic, follicle response to dht

91

Eponychium

Cuticle

92

Lunula

Pale crescent at base, thickening area

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Hyponychium

Skin beneath free end of nail

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Sudoriferous glands

Sweat glands, myoepithelial cells, all merocrine, eccrine or apocrine

95

Eccrine sweat glands

Most, palms soles forehead, thermoregulation, 99% water

96

Apocrine sweat glands

Axillary and anogenital. Sweat fatty substances protein, larger, into hair follicles,

97

Ceruminous glands

Excrete eat wax, apocrine gland

98

Mammary glands

Apocrine gland

99

Sebaceous glands

Oil glands, secrete sebum, Holocrine, Hair folicles

100

Psoriasis

Genetic auto immune. Overproduction of keratinocytes

101

Skin cancers

Basal cell- least malignant, most common

Squamous cell- keratinocytes of spinosum

Melanoma- most dangerous, ABCD rule (asymmetry, border, color, diameter) , over production of melanocytes , sun exposure bad

102

Lanugo coat

Delicate hairs in 5th 6th month

103

Skeletal cartilage all contains

Chondrocytes in lacunae and extracellular matrix

104

Hyaline cartilage

Support flexibility resilience. Collagen fibers only. Most abundant.

105

Elastic cartilage

Similar to hyaline. Elastic fibers. External ear and epiglottis

106

Fibrocartilage

Thick collagen fibers. Meniscus vertebral disks

107

Cartilage growth

Appositional- new matrix from surrounding pericardium

Interstitial growth- lacunae bound chondrocytes divide, expand from within.

108

Growth arrest lines

Horizontal lines on bone. Proof of illness. When bones stop growing

109

Axial skeleton

Skull vertebral column rib cage

110

Appendicular skeleton

Upper and lower limbs and girdles connecting

111

Hydroxyapapite

Calcium phosphate interacts with calcium hydroxide. Hardness of bone. 65% of bone by mass

112

Osteoid

Organic part of matrix.

113

Osteogenic layer of periosteum

Closest to bone. Osteogenic cells.

114

Sharpeys fibers

On periosteum. Collagen fibers that extend from fibrous layer to bone matrix

115

Perforating (volkmann's ) canals

Right angles to central canal. Connect blood vessels and nerves of periosteum , medullary cavity, and central canal

116

Growth hormone

Stimulating epiphyseal plate activity

117

Thyroid hormone

Modulates activity of growth hormone. Proportions

118

Parathyroid hormone

Removes calcium from bone

119

Calcitonin

Lowers blood calcium levels temporarily

120

Osteopenia

Inadequate ossification. 30-40. Osteoblasts activity declines