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Flashcards in Z 333 Deck (76)
1

albumin

60% of plasma proteins
osmotic pressure, transporting ions (Ca2+)

2

globulins

36% of plasma proteins
transport proteins, immune response (antibodies)

3

fibrinogen

4% of plasma proteins
blood clotting

4

oxyhemoglobin

when O2 loaded on in lungs

5

deoxyhemoglobin

when O2 unloaded at tissues

6

carbaminohemoglobin

CO2 binds amino acids in globin chains at tissues

7

hemocytoblast

stem cell from which all formed elements are made

8

reticulocyte

forms into erythrocyte

9

3 phases once stem cell is committed

ribosome synthesis
hemoglobin accumulation
ejection of nucleus

10

erythropoietin

control erythrocyte development
produced in liver and kidneys

11

RBCs circulate in blood for

100-120 days

12

polycythemia

excess of erythrocytes

13

5 million

RBCs/ microliter of blood

14

200,000

platelets / microliter of blood

15

5-10,000

WBCs / microliter of blood

16

12-18g

hemoglobin / 100mL blood

17

whole blood is...

55% plasma
45% RBCs (more in males because testosterone stimulates RBC production)
1% WBCs and platelets (buffy layer)

18

3 types of formed elements

erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets

19

universal receiver

AB

20

universal donor

O

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granulocytes

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

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neutrophils

bacteria slayers

23

eosinophils

parasitic worms, allergic response and asthma

24

basophils

histamine, vasodilator, allergies

25

lymphocytes

B cells, T cells, NK cells

26

monocytes

macrophages
one type of APC

27

B cells

give rise to plasma cells that produce antibodies

28

T cells

helper: activate and direct other immune cells
cytotoxic: recognize fragmented antigens presented by Antigen Presenting Cells; recognize using TCR

29

natural killer cells

do not need antigen presentation
target cells infected with viruses and microbes

30

both T cells and NK cells...

contact with infected cell initiates release of perforins and granzymes that cause rupture and death

31

mononucleosis

caused by Epstein-Barr virus
high number of agranulocytes, many atypical

32

leukopenia

low WBC count
caused by drugs (glucocorticoids and anticancer)

33

megakaryocyte

split to form platelets

34

thrombopoietin

control platelet formation

35

3 phases of hemostasis

vascular spasm
platelet plug formation
coagulation or blood clotting

36

during coagulation phase ...

thrombin causes conversion of fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin
form mesh network that glues platelets together and makes plasma gel like

37

Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)

stimulates smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to rebuild vessel wall

38

fibrinolysis

plasmin digests fibrin clot
controlled by plasmin

39

thrombus

intravascular clot

40

embolus

thrombus breaks off and can clog other vessels (heart/brain)

41

heparin

natural anticoagulant from basophil and mast cell granules

42

layers of pericardium...

fibrous
serous: parietal (against fibrous), visceral/epicardium (against outside of heart)

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endocardium

thin layer continuous with endothelium of blood vessels

44

coronary circulation system branches off...

semilunar valves leading to ascending aorta

45

intrinsic conduction system path

Sinoatrial (SA) node
Atrioventricular (AV) node
AV bundle
purkinje fibers

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P wave

depolarization of atria

47

QRS complex

depolarization of ventricles, repolarization of atria

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T wave

repolarization of ventricles, begins at apex

49

phases of cardiac cycle

atrial contraction
isovolumetric contraction
ventricular ejection
isovolumetric relaxation
ventricular filling

50

stroke volume

amount of blood pumped out by one ventricle in each heartbeat
EDV-ESV

51

cardiac output

amount of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute
heart rate (beats/min) x stroke volume (mL/beat)

52

3 factors that effect stroke volume

Frank-Starling Law of Heart/increased venous return
degree of muscle contractility
Pressure in aorta/pulmonary trunk

53

+ inotropic agents

increase contractility
thyroxine, epinephrine

54

- inotropic agents

decrease contractility
acidosis, increased extracellular K+

55

2 cardiac centers in medulla oblongata

cardioacceleratory center
cardioihibiotory center

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cardioacceleratory center

controls sympathetic neurons
increase heart rate

57

cardioinhibiotory center

controls parasympathetic neurons
decreased heart rate

58

typical autonomic tone

vagal tone (vagus nerve has 90% parasympathetic fibers...)

59

cardiac centers receive info from...

sensory receptors: baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, proprioceptors
higher brain center: cortex, limbic system, hypothalamus

60

sympathetic neurotransmitter

norepinephrine
increases permeability of Na+ and Ca2+
increases depolarization --> increase hr

61

parasympathetic neurotransmitter

acetylcholine
increases permeability to K+
hyperpolarization --> decreases hr

62

Bainbridge reflex

atrial reflex
increased venous return--> sympathetic activation -->increased hr

63

warmer=

increased heart rate

64

females have...

higher heart rate

65

path of blood through arteries...

heart
elastic arteries
muscular arteries
arterioles
capillaries
venules
veins

66

vasa vasorum

protects and anchors vessels
blood to vessels

67

if not into true capillary...

vascular shunt (metarteriole and thoroughfare channel)

68

3 types of capillaries

continuous, fenestrated, sinusoidal

69

continuous capillaries

most common, skin and muscles
continuous epithelium lining

70

fenestrated capillaries

pores
high absorption/filtration
in kidneys and small intestine

71

sinusoidal capillaries

large gaps
passage of large molecules and blood cells
liver and bone marrow

72

portal system

blood flows through 2 consecutive capillary networks before returning to heart

73

anastomosis

2 vessels merge, alternate routes of blood supply to tissue

74

only formed element that are complete with nuclei and organelles

leukocytes (WBCs)

75

diapedesis

leukocytes move out of vessel into infected tissue

76

embolism

embolus that obstructs vessel