[9] Heart Failure in Children Flashcards Preview

[OS 213] CVS Module > [9] Heart Failure in Children > Flashcards

Flashcards in [9] Heart Failure in Children Deck (23):
1

Formula for CO

CO = HR x SV

2

Adult vs. Pediatric Heart Failure

Cause

A: Myocardial disease, ventricular systolic dysfunction

C: Volume/Pressure overload with normal contractility

3

Compensatory Mechanisms for Heart Failure

Increased Preload
Increased Cardiac Rate
Increased Afterload

4

Hallmark of Heart Failure

Decreased oxygen delivery

5

Pharmacologic Treatment for CHF

D:iuretics
I:notropes
V:asodilator
A: ACE Inhibitors

Di:goxin

B:eta Blockers
A:ldosterone Antagonists

6

A K-Sparing Weak Diuretic

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Spirolactone

7

NYHA class where there is slight limitation of physical activity

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Class II

8

Exercise intolerance and easy fatigability are hallmarks of?

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Congestive Heart Failure

9

Heart size to cardiothoracic ratio in cardiomegaly

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

HS:HR > 0.55

10

Causes of Pediatric Heart Failure

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

Volume Overload with Normal Ventricular Contractility

Pressure Overload with normal Ventricular Contractility

Complex Heart Disease

11

Ultimately associated with alterations in cellular and subcellular phenotype reducing contractility

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Myocardial Hypertrophy/LV Remodelling

12

Increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure and left arterial pressure leads to?

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Pulmonary Venous Congestion

13

Symptoms of Systemic Congestion

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Hepatomegaly
Bipedal Edema

14

Important signs of heart failure in newborns/infants

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Intermittency of Feeding
Dyspnea

15

Important signs of heart failure in children and young adults

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Easy Fatigability
Tachypnea

16

Signs to look for during general survey of a child suspected with HF

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Failure to Thrive
Anxiety
Irritability
Lacks Color
Diaphoresis
Distress

FAILDD

17

Abdominal signs of cardiorespiratory distress

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Retraction
Harrison's Groove

18

Vital Signs of a HF Patient

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Sinus Tachycardia
Hypotension
Tachypnea

19

T/F: Splenomegaly is associated with CHF.

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

F. Only hepatomegaly and ascites are associated

20

T/F: Peripheral edema is commonly found in infants with CHF

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

F. It is extremely rare in infants due to presence of TR (tricuspid regurgitation)

21

Drugs that can be used to increase CO

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Digoxin
Beta Agonists
Milrinone

22

Drugs used to decrease preload

(c/o Piperno, Poblete, Ragasa)

Diuretics (Furosemide)
Venous Dilators (Nitroglycerin)

23

Infants with Down Syndrome usually present with?

Complete Atrio-Ventricular Septal Defect

(CAVSD)