A&P 1.10 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology I > A&P 1.10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P 1.10 Deck (26)
1

Gluteus Maximus


A, O, I

O: posterior gluteal line of illum, posterior sacrum & coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament (sacrum to ischial tuberosity)

I: gluteal tuberosity on posterior femur, lateral condyle of tibia via illiotibial band or tract

A: extension of the hip

2

Epidermis

Thinner
Tissue: epithelial
Layers: 4-5
Avascular

3

Dermis

thicker
Tissue: connective
Layers: 2
Vascular and Innervated

4

Hypodermis

subcutaneous/superficial fascia
Tissue: adipose, areolar
Layers: 1
vascular & innervated

5

Layers of fascia

Superficial

Deep

6

Superficial

description list

Areolar connective tissue
adipose CT
collagen
vascular
innervated
separates muscle from skin

7

Deep

description list

Dense irregular connective tissue

Vascular

Surrounds muscles and bones

8

Appendages of the skin

Dermis contains

Accessory structures

Hair
Nails
Muscles
Glands

9

Hair

Few hairless areas: palms, soles of feet, parts of the genitalia

Epidermis cells spread down to the dermis to form a root sheet/ hair tube or follicle

Germinal matrix pushes up keratinized hair that's alive and will return if plucked

Lives for 2-6 years and grows 1/2 inch per month or 5" per year

10

Nails

Heavily keratinized dermal cells

11

Muscles

Muscles In the skin (erector pilli) = goose bumps cause hair to stand up

12

Skin glands

Types

Oil
Sweat
Earwax

13

Oil glands

Sebaceous and produce sebum
- skin soft, hair supple
- protective skin cream
- anti-fungal
- prevents excessive evaporation

When clogged: acne and black heads

14

Sweat glands

Sudoriforous (most numerous 3-4 million)


Two types eccrine and apocrine

15

Sweat gland

Eccrine

Perspiration (salts, ammonia, uric acid, other wastes)
Maintains core temperature
Mammary glands are modified sweat glands
3000 per square inch in palms, forehead, soles
Same lipids as apocrine

16

Sweat glands

Apocrine

Deep subcutaneous
Armpit, axilla, breast areola, anus
Enlarge at puberty
Same lipids as eccrine plus proteins

Odor is bacteria

17

Skin glands

Earwax

Cerumen glands
Mix of oil, sweat and wax

18

Skin color

Melanin=brown

Albinism - lack of tyrosinase

Yellow - too much carotene (vitamin A)
Blood flow in the capillaries
- cyanosis: blue skin due to reduced blood flow
- blushing: pink skin due to increase blood flow

vitiligo: loss of pigment in certain areas; idiopathic (unknown cause)

Melanocytes make melanin

All races have same number of melanocytes

19

Melamine

Location

Found in the basil layer of the epidermis

20

Vitiligo

Loss of in only area

Cause unknown- idiopathic

21

Albinism

Caused by

Lack of tyrosinase

22

Inflammation and wound healing

2 types

Epidermal

Dermal

23

Epidermal wound healing

Basale to surface: 35 days

Increased friction may be faster time

Increased friction over time: callus

24

Dermal wound healing

Maintains self but only rapid in wound healing

25

Dermal wound healing


More information

Dermis and subcutaneous layers

Scar tissue leads to loss of normal function

26

4 phases of dermal healing

Inflammatory response: blood clot form and loosely connect the wound edges; vascular and cellular response
Migratory response: clot becomes a scab, epithelial cells go to wound to bridge the gap
Proliferation: happens when you have extensive epithelial growth under the scab
Maturation: scab falls off once epidermis is normal thickness