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Flashcards in A&P 1.19 Deck (42)
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1

Serratus anterior

A, I, O

A- protraction/abduction of the scapula

I- superior and inferior angle of the scapula and medial margin in between

O - Lateral aspect of 1st through 8-9 ribs

Named for shape and location

Serrat - saw like;
Weak muscle is a wing scapula

2

range of motion

the range, measured in degrees of a circle, through which the bones of a joint can be moved

3

Range of motion

Review

6 factors

Structure or shape of the articulating bones
Strength or tension of the joint ligaments
Arrangement and tension of the muscles
Apposition of soft parts
Hormones
Disuse

4

Structure or shape of the articulating bones




Spatial relationship : how closely the articulating surfaces fit together

more stable than mobile because it's an Interlocking fit

5

Strength or tension of the joint ligaments





Tautness of the capsule and ligaments in certain positions

When the knee is straight the ACL is taut and the PCL is loose

The reverse occurs in flexion

6

Arrangement and tension of the muscles


When the thigh is raised with the knee extended, the ROM is restricted by the tension of the hamstring muscle on the back of the thigh

7

Apposition of soft parts

The point at which one body surface meets another (muscle or adipose tissue)

8

Hormones

Relaxin from placenta loosens pubic symphysis

9

relaxin



during pregnancy the ovaries and placenta produce a hormone that increases the flexibility of the pubic symphysis and the pelvic ligaments, allowing expansion of the pelvic outlet

10

Disuse

Movement at a joint may be restricted

Decreased synovial fluid
Decreased flexibility of ligaments
Reduced size of muscles

11

Detail of hip joint

Articular capsule
Ligament of the head of the femur
Acetabular labrum

12

Articular capsule


Very dense & strong capsule that extends from the rim of the acetabulum to the neck of the femur

13

Ligament of the head of the femur

Runs from the fossa of the acetabulum to the head of the femur contains a small artery

14

Articulation of the vertebrae

5

Intervertebral discs
Intervertebral joints
Vertebro-costal joints
Atlanto-occipital joint
Atlanto-axial joint

14

Acetabular labrum

Fibrocartilage rim attached to the margin of the acetabulum

15

Detail of the vertebral joints

Articulation

Articulation between the superior and inferior facet processes of adjacent vertebrae are gliding joints

16

Detail of vertebral joints

Bodies of vertebrae




Bodies of vertebrae are separated by cushioned pads of fibrocartilage called intervertebral discs and are symphyseal joints. Each disc has tough outer layer called the annulus fibrosis, which surrounds the soft gelatinous core (nucleus pulposis) that gives resiliency and shock absorption.

17

annulus fibrosis



Each disc has tough outer layer called the annulus fibrosis, which surrounds the soft gelatinous core (nucleus pulposis) that gives resiliency and shock absorption.

18

nucleus pulposus

intervertebral discs are filled with a soft, pulpy, highly elastic substance called nucleus pulposus

19

Detail of vertebral joints

Intervertebral ligaments

Intervertebral ligaments run anterior and posterior to the bodies which are

Anterior longitudinal ligaments
Posterior longitudinal ligaments
Ligamentum flavum
Interspinous ligament
Supraspinous ligament

20

atlanto-axial joint

made between the atlas and axis in the vertebrae

21

atlas

C1

22

axis

C2

23

dens

verticle projection on the top of the axis that links to the atlas

24

Effects of aging on joints

Part 1


Decreased production of synovial fluid
Articular cartilage becomes thinner
Ligaments shorten and lose some flexibility
Effects vary and are affected by genetic factors as well as wear and tear

25

Effects of aging on joints

Part 2

Degenerative changes may begin as early as age 20 but is unusual

By age 80 there is typically some degeneration of knees, elbows, hips and shoulder

Males commonly develop kyphosis in spine or hunched posture

After age 70 nearly everyone has some evidence of osteoarthritis

26

kyphosis

males versus females

males higher rate of ankylosing spondylitis

females higher rate of osteoporosis

27

Arthritis

arth: joint; itis: inflammation

The inflammation of the joints, joints are swollen, stiff and painful.

Afflicts about 45 million people in the US

28

3 types of arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis - RA

Osteoarthritis - OA or DJD

Gouty arthritis

29

Rheumatism

Defined

Any painful disorder of the supporting structures of the bone - bones, ligaments, tendons, or muscles-- that is not caused by infection or injury