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Flashcards in A&P 1.17 Deck (39)
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1

Lattissimus dorsi

A, I, O

A- extend the shoulder, Adduct the shoulder, Medially rotate the shoulder

O - S.P. T8-L5, sacrum, iliac crest (external lip of posterior crest). Via the thoracolumbar aponeurosis

I - medial lip of the bicipital groove of humerus

Named for location, shape and size

Lattissimus - broadest
Dorsi - back

2

Lattissimus dorsi

general

most superficial muscle of the lower back

arrest position

3

4 types of tissue

CMEN

4

3 types of connective tissues

Fluid
Fiber
Hard or skeletal

5

Dense fibrous connective tissue

Contains fibroblasts (fiber producing cells)
Mostly collagen
Some elastin
And few reticular fibers

Regular and irregular ( under skin dermis and peri-osteum)

6

Skeletal connective tissue

Cartilage

Cells: chondrocytes

Matrix: collagen, elastin and some reticular fibers

7

Types of cartilage

3

Hyaline
Fibro-cartilage
Elastic

8

Hyaline cartilage



Most common cartilage in the human body
Found in articular joints, ribs and pre-calcifying bone, support rings of respiratory tubes
collagen

9

Fibrocartilage





Most collagen fibers causing rigidity and stiffness
Strongest, most durable type of cartilage
Made of large collagen bundles

Found: intervertebral discs, pubis symphysis and knee joint

10

Elastic cartilage



Large number of very fine elastic fibers that help maintain shape after deformations
Ear, nose, vocal cartilages

High degree of flexibility does not calcify

11

Articulation or joint

Defined

A point of contact between bones

Also known as arthrosis

12

Joints classified by

Structure and function

13

Arthrology

Defined

Study of joints

14

Structure

Classified by what's holding it together

type of connective tissue

15

Function

Classified by the degree of movement permitted

16

Structures

3 types

Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

17

Fibrous connective tissue.

Overview

Contains fibroblast, mostly collagen with some elastic, few reticular fibers, run in parallel bundles (tendons and ligaments)
Irregular fibrous in the dermis/scar tissue

18

Fibrous joints

Characteristics







Lack a synovial cavity
Bones held together by fibrous connective tissue
Little or no movement (synarthrosis or amphiarthroses)

3 structural types

Sutures
Syndesmoses
Gomphosis

19

fibrous joints

3 structural types

3 structural types

Sutures
Syndesmoses
Gomphosis

20

Suture

Characteristics


To sew together
immovable (synarthrosis)

Thin fibrous layer connecting bones of the skull

21

Syndesmosis

Defined

Fibrous joint - bones united by ligament
Slightly movable (amphiarthrosis)
Anterior tibiofibular joint and interossious membrane

22

Gomphosis

Characteristics

Ligament holds come shaped peg in bony slot
immovable (synarthrosis)
Teeth in alveolar process

23

Cartilaginous joints

Characteristics





Limited movement

Lacks a synovial joint

Allows little or no movement

Bones tightly connected by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage

24

Cartilaginous joints

2 types


Synchondroses
Symphyses

25

Synchondrosis

Defined


Between sternum and ribs or sternocostal joint and epiphyseal plate

hyaline cartilage

immovable (synarthrosis)

26

Symphyses

Defined

Fibrocartilage is connecting material

Slightly movable (amphiarthrosis)

Intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis

27

Synovial joints

Defined

Majority of joints in body
Joint space is a synovial joint cavity
Articular cartilage covering ends of bones
Articular capsule

Movable (diathroses)
Fluid filled joint capsule

28

Types of synovial joints

6

Planar
Hinge
Pivot
Condyloid
Saddle
Ball and socket

29

Synovial joint

Divisions 3

Monaxial
Biaxial
Triaxial

30

Function

3 degrees

Classified by degree of movement

3 degrees
immovable (synarthrosis)
Slightly movable (amphiarthrosis)
Movable (diathroses)