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Flashcards in A&P 1.11 Deck (35)
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1

Gluteus medius

A-abduction of the femur at hip, medial rotation of the femur

I - greater trochanter

O - Posterior ilium between superior/posterior and middle/anterior gluteal lines

Named for size

2

Gluteus minimus

A - abduction of femur at the hip, medial rotation of femur

I - greater trochanter

O - gluteal surface between anterior/middle and inferior gluteal lines

Named for size

3

Connective tissue

Types & ground substance

Few cells, abundant extracellular matrix

Fibrous - gel-like ground substance

Skeletal- hard ground substance- chondroitin sulfate (often used as a supplement)

Fluid - blood plasma ground surface

4

Muscle

Types

Skeletal - attaches to bone (striated and voluntary)

Cardiac - heart (striated and involuntary)

Smooth - visceral, organ walls and blood vessels (non-striated and involuntary)

5

Epithelial

Review

Many cells, little extracellular matrix
Covers and lines ducts

Membranous - covers and lines

Glandular - produce fluids

6

Nervous

Review

Neurons - electrically excitable, can create an action potential
Neuroglia - support cells

7

Tissue types from superficial to deep

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nerve

8

Muscle name

Examples

See slide

9

Skeletal muscle

Anatomy

Individual
Voluntary
Each muscle is it's own organ
Attaches to bone
Composed of muscle tissue: muscle cells or fibers

10

fasicles

groups of skeletal muscle fibers

11

Muscles named for fiber direction and arrangement

6 types

Parallel - rectus abdominus
Convergent - (triangular) gluteus muscles
Pennate ( uni, bi, multi) feathered (tendonous attachment)
Fusiform - quadriceps
Spiral - pectoralis major (twisting fibers)
Circular - around eye or mouth ( vagina/anus)

12

Parallel

Fascicles run parallel to each other
Both ends have tendons


Example: sartorius

13

Convergent or trianglar

Fascicles converge together


Example: pectoral is major and gluteus muscles

14

Pennate

Short fascicles in relation to muscle length
Tendons run almost the entire length of muscle
Feathered
Tendonous attachment
example: rectus femoris


Example: rectus femoris

15

Fusiform

Fascicles run parallel
Belly is larger than ends

Examples: biceps brachii

16

Spiral

Fascicles twist or spiral between attachments

Example: lattissimus dorsi

17

Circular

Fascicles form a concentric circle
Forms sphincters that close orifices

Example: orbicularis

18

Fascia

Types

Superficial

Deep

19

Superficial fascia

contains

functions

Also called Subcutaneous or hypodermus

Contains nerve, blood vessels, lymph vessels

Made of areolar "packing material" and adipose tissue

Function: insulate, store fat, protect from physical trauma

20

Deep fascia

contains

functions

Below subcutaneous, surrounds muscle, bone and organism
Contains nerve, blood vessels, lymph vessels

Function: allows free movement in muscle and organs, gives support and stability in location

21

Functions of muscle tissue

Movement- body as a whole regulate organ volume, moves substance within the body

Heat production- byproduct of contraction

Posture - stabilize with partial contraction

22

Properties of muscle tissue

Electrically excitable
Contractility
Extensibility

23

Properties of muscle tissue
Electrically excitable

- responds to nerve signal

24

Properties of muscle tissue
Contractility

- ability to get small (when in action or working it can only tighten/shorten)

25

Properties of muscle tissue
Extensibility

- ability to stretch without damaging tissue (requires conscious action to forcibly stretch) due to elasticity it returns to resting state

26

Layers of muscles

Muscle or individual organ made up of

Fascicles or bunches of muscle

Fibers or muscle cells

27

Coverings of muscles

Dense irregular: connective tissue that covers or wraps muscles and their tissue

28

Connective tissue covering of skeletal tissue

Deep fascia
"Shrink wrap" of dense irregular CT enclosing or covering muscle or parts

29

Three layers of fascia

epimysium -
Perimysium -
Endomysium -

muscle fiber + muscle cell
All three are continuous fibrous structures that attach muscles to bone called tendons

30

epimysium

covering around entire muscle