A&P 1.20 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology I > A&P 1.20 > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P 1.20 Deck (50)
1

External obliques

A, I, O

A: unilateral: lateral flex vertebral column to the same side; rotate vertebral column to the opposite side
Bilaterally: flex the vertebral column

I: anterior part of the iliac crest, abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba, inguinal ligament

O: external surfaces of 5th to 12th ribs

Named for location: external and direction of fibers: oblique

2

Inguinal ligament

Goes from ASIS to the pubis

3

Linea alba

From xipoid process to the pubic symphysis and crest

4

Fibrous network description

Continuous, three dimensional interpenetrating web

From dermis through superficial and deep fascia to the various mysiums and from those through tendons to periosteum, ligaments, bone and joint capsules

5

Membranes

Defined

Thin sheets that cover or line parts of the body

6

Two types of membranes

Epithelial

Connective

7

Epithelial membranes

3

Cutaneous membranes
Mucous membranes
Serous membranes

8

Epithelial membranes

Defined

Avascular layer of epithelium and a basement membrane of fibrous connective tissue

9

Cutaneous membrane



Skin

Covers the surface of the body
Specialized membrane that covers our entire body

10

Mucous membrane


Lines cavities that open to the external surface of the body

GI, respiratory, reproductive tracts

11

Serous membranes

Lines closed cavities within the ventral body cavity and line the organs within those cavities

12

Connective tissue membranes

Synovial
Meninges

13

Connective tissue membranes

2

No epithelial tissue; just connective tissue

Synovial
Meninges

14

Synovial membranes

Described



A layer of areolar connective tissue only, no epithelial layer
There are specialized cells within the areolar tissue in synovial membranes

contains no epithelium

15

Meninges

Define

Specific to nervous system

Are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord

16

Serous membranes

2 layers

Parietal layer

Visceral layer

Space

17

Parietal layer

Outer layer that lines the "wall" of the cavity

18

Visceral layer

Inner layer that surrounds the "organs"

19

Space



Small potential space filled with serous fluid

Allows the organs to glide easily against each other and the walls of their cavity

20

3 serous membranes

Pericardium
Pleura
Peritoneum

21

Pericardium

Lines and surrounds the heart (pericardial cavities)

22

Pleura

Lines and surrounds the lungs

23

Peritoneum

Lines the abdominopelvic cavity and its organs

24

Folds of the peritoneum






Folds that hold organs in place within the abdominopelvic cavity

Includes:
Falciform ligament
Mesentery

25

Falciform ligament

Holds the liver in place

Hangs liver from diaphragm

26

Mesentery

Middle
Attaches the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall

27

Spinal curves

Primary and secondary

total of 4 curves

28

Primary curves

Posteriorly convex
Anteriorly concave

Thoracic and sacral

Present at birth as a single curve from head to sacrum

Fetal position curve

29

Secondary curves

Posteriorly concave
Anterior convex

Cervical and lumbar

Cervical: results from infants attempts to hold head upright
Lumbar: results from balancing efforts to walk

30

Pathologies of the spine

Abnormal spinal curves

3 types

Lordosis - secondary curves
Kyphosis - primary curves
Scoliosis

31

Lordosis

Swayback

Exaggerated lumbar curve

32

Kyphosis

Hunchback or dowagers hump

Exaggerated thoracic curve

33

Scoliosis

Abnormal lateral curve

34

Abnormal curves

The abnormal curves can be

Congenital
Idiopathic

Or related to:
Incorrect posture
Trauma
Disease

35

all three curves can effect

Breathing, posture, other vital functions

36

Treatment

Degree of curvature determines course of treatment

37

Treatment

massage

Postural bodywork can be very effective treatment

Such as structural integration

38

Connective membrane

Meninges

Fibrous connective tissue covering our brain and spinal cord

39

Meninges

3 layers

Pia mater
Arachnoid membrane
Dura mater

40

Pia mater

Deepest layer that adheres to the brain and spinal cord

Delicate mother

41

Arachnoid membrane

Intermediate layer

"Spider-like"

42

Dura mater

Superficial layer

Made of strong white fibrous tissue that adheres to the periosteum of surrounding bone

"Tough mother"

43

Meningeal folds


Separate the cranial vault into regions that separate portions of the brain

44

Cerebrum

Portion of the brain that sits on top

Conscious perception and thought
Voluntary movement

Split into 2 hemispheres

45

Cerebellum





In the back on the bottom

Large portion of the brain at the back of the skull

Motor activity is fine tuned

2 hemispheres

46

Separations


Both the cerebrum and cerebellum have left and right hemispheres

47

Meningeal folds

3

Flax cerebri
Flax cerebelli
Tentorium cerebelli

48

Flax cerebri

separates the cerebrum into right and left hemispheres

49

Flax cerebelli

seperates the cerebellum into right and left cerebellar hemispheres

50

Tentorium cerebelli

Separates cerebrum and cerebellum