A&P Lab Practical 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P Lab Practical 3 Deck (116)
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Epimysium

Epi=on, myo=muscle

connective tissue that surrounds a skeletal muscle organ and separates it from surrounding tissue and organs

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Perimysium

peri=around, myo=muscle

connective tissue around a fascicle in skeletal muscle

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Muscle fascicle

fascis=bundle

bundle of muscle fibers

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muscle cells aka

muscle fibers

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Endomysium

Endo=inside, myo=muscle

connective tissue that surrounds and binds individual muscle fibers

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tendon

fibrous connective tissue that binds muscle to bone

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ligament

fibrous connective tissue that binds bone to bone

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aponeurosis

broad sheet of connective tissue that binds muscle organs to body parts that they act upon, either bone or muscle.

Can be thought of as broad flat tendons.

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list muscles of the face

orbicularis oculi

orbicularis oris

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list muscles of the neck

sternocleidomastoid

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list muscles of the shoulders

deltoid

trapezius

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list muscles of the back

latissimus dorsi

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list muscles of the chest

pectoralis major

serratus anterior

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list muscles of the arms

biceps brachii

triceps brachii

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list muscles of the thorax

diaphragm

 

external intercostals

 

internal intercostals

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costals means

ribs

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The external intercostals and internal intercostals _____.

External intercostals are between the ribs and they are angled _____ and forward.

crisscross

 

downward

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list the muscles of the buttocks

gluteus medius

gluteus maximus

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list the muscles of the abdomen

rectus abdominis

external oblique

internal oblique

transversus abdominis (deepest)

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list the muscles of the posterior thigh (make up the hamstring)

biceps femoris

semitendinosus

semimembranosus

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list the muscles of the anterior thigh (make up the quadriceps)

  • rectus femoris
  • vastus lateralis
  • vastus medialis
  • vastus intermedius (deepest)

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list the muscles of the inner thigh

sartorius

gracilis

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list the muscles of the legs

gastrocnemius--2 headed muscle

soleus --achilles tendon

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list the major parts of the brain

  • cerebrum
  • diencephalons
  • midbrain
  • pituitary gland
  • pons
  • medulla oblongata
  • cerebellum

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List the components of the cerebrum

a. right and left cerebral hemispheres

b. longitudinal fissure

c.corpus callosum

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List the components of the diencephalon

a. pineal gland

b. thalamus (intermediate mass hols L&R together)

c. hypothalamus

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List the components of the midbrain

midbrain aka corpora quadrigemina

a. superior colliculi---pair

b. inferior colliculi----pair

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List the components of the ventricle system of the brain

a. lateral ventricles

b. third ventricle

c. fourth ventricle

d. cerebral aqueduct

e. interventricular foramen

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List the components of the spinal cord

  • a. anterior gray horns
  • b. lateral gray horns
  • c. posterior gray horns
  • d. anterior white columns
  • e. lateral white columns
  • f. posterior white columns

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List the components and associated spaces of the meninges

Meninges

  • dura mater,
  • arachnoid mater,
  • pia mater

Associated spaces

  • epidural space,
  • central canal

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List the major structures of the neurons

  • cell body (soma),
  • dendrites,
  • axon,
  • synaptic terminals,
  • Schwann cells,
  • myelin sheath,
  • nodes

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List parts associated with Olfactory Nerve

olfactory bulbs

olfactory tracts

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List parts associated with Optic Nerve

Optic chiasm

optic tract

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List I-V of the cranial nerves

  • I. Olfactory
  • II. Optic
  • III. Oculomotor
  • IV. Trochlear
  • V. Trigeminal

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List VI-XII of the cranial nerves

  • VI. Abducens
  • VII. Facial
  • VIII. Vestibulocochlear
  • IX. Glossopharyngeal
  • X. Vagus
  • XI. Accessory
  • XII. Hypoglossal

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What is your mneumonic for the cranial nerves?

  • On Occasion Our Trusty Truck Acts Funny-Very Good Vehicle Any How

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List the name, type, primary function of NI.

  • Olfactory,
  • sensory,
  • olfaction (smell)

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List the name, type, primary function of NII.

  • Opitic,
  • sensory,
  • vision

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List the name, type, primary function of NIII.

  • Oculomotor,
  • motor,
  • movement of the eye

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List the name, type, primary function of NIV.

  • Trochlear,
  • motor,
  • movement of the eye

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List the name, type, primary function of NV.

  • Trigeminal,
  • sensory & motor,
  • sensory info from face,
  • movement to chew food

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List the name, type, primary function of NVI.

  • Abducens,
  • motor,
  • movement of the eye

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List the name, type, primary function of NVII.

  • Facial,
  • sensory & motor,
  • sense of taste; movement of face (expressions)

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List the name, type, primary function of NVIII.

  • Vestibulocochlear,
  • sensory,
  • hearing and balance

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List the name, type, primary function of NIX.

  • Glossopharyngeal,
  • sensory & motor;
  • taste, swallowing, gag reflex.

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List the name, type, primary function of NX.

  • Vagus,
  • sensory & motor;
  • visceral organ sensations/ movement of visceral muscles (heart, digestive tract)

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List the name, type, primary function of NXI.

  • Accessory,
  • motor,
  • movement head & shoulders, swallowing

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List the name, type, primary function of NXII.

  • Hypoglossal,
  • motor,
  • movement of tongue to allow speech & swallowing

49

List the parts of the spinal nerves

  • dorsal roots
  • dorsal root ganglia
  • ventral roots
  • spinal nerves

50

The eye is like a ____ that forms a ______.

camera /

picture

51

The visual ____ transmits the image to the brain via ____.

system / optic nerves

52

Light enters the eye through the ____, the tough clear tissue covering the front of your eye.

Light is refracted by the cornea because __________. This initial refraction begins the _______ process.

cornea

the cornea is much denser than air.

focusing.

53

After passing the cornea, light passes through the ____, which is a dark _____, at the center of the ____.

pupil

hole

iris

54

The muscular iris can expand or ____ in order to _____ the amount of light transmitted through the _____.

contract

regulate

pupil

55

The eye's ____ focuses the corneal-refracted light to make an image on the _____.

lens

retina

56

The retina is a thin layer of light-_____ cells that lines the back of the ____.

sensitive

eyeball

57

The cells that send electrical impulses to the brain via the _____ nerve are called?

optic

Rods & cones

58

Rods are most sensitive to ____, provide ____ vision at night. Cones are active in ____ ____ and enable you to see ____.

light /

gray bright light /

color

59

Sound is collected by the _____ (the visible part of the ear) and directed through the outer ____ _____. The sound makes the ______ vibrate, which then causes the ____ in the middle ear to vibrate. The vibrations are transferred to the ______, in the inner ear.

pinna 

ear canal

tympanic membrane 

ossicles

cochlea

60

The cochlea is lined with ___ which trigger the generation of ____ signals that are sent to the brain.

sensitive hairs

nerve

61

List the structures of the outer ear.

a. pinna / auricle

b. external auditory meatus

c. tympanic membrane (aka eardrum)

62

List the structures of the middle ear.

A. Ossicles.

  • 1. malleus (hammer)
  • 2. incus (anvil)
  • 3. stapes (stirrups)

B. Auditory tube

C. Oval window

63

The inner ear is located within the _____ bone, where there are spaces called the ____ ____.

temporal /

bony labyrinth

64

Within the bony labyrinth are ______-lined, ___-filled tubes and spaces called the _____. This region houses supporting cells along with the receptors for _____ and _____.

membrane fluid

membranous labyrinth

equilibrium /   hearing

65

They bony labyrinth is divided into 3 regions:

i. The vestibule

ii. Semicircular canals

iii. cochlea

66

It is important to know that the N VIII, the ____ nerve is connected to the ___.

Vestibulocochlear

vestibule

67

The part of the cochlea that is responsible for hearing is called the .... Its main structures are:

Organ of Corti

  • basilar membrane,
  • tectorial membrane,
  • hair cells

68

Structures involved in the Neuromuscular junction.

a. sarcolemma  

b. motor end plate  

c. T-tubules  

d. sarcoplasmic reticulum.

69

A. ENDOMYSIUM

B. SARCOLEMMA

C. MYOFIBRIL

D. MOTOR END PLATE

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Identify:

a. external oblique

b. transversus abdominus

c. internal oblique

d. rectus abdominus

on a horizontal cross section model.

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