Ch. 1 Lecture Notes Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 1 Lecture Notes Review Deck (164)
1

Zygote

fertilized egg

2

differentiation

process where cells develop special characteristics for structure & function

3

Biology

Study of life

4

Anatomy

study of internal and external structures and the relationship between these structures

5

ana-

up or apart

6

tomy

to cut

7

gross anatomy

study of visible features

8

microscopic anatomy

study of structures that require magnification

9

cytology

study of cellular structure and function

10

cyto

cell

11

-logy

study of

12

Histology

study of tissues

13

histo

tissue

14

Physiology

study of how living organisms function

15

physio-

nature / function

16

Human physiology

study of functions of the human body

17

Cellular physiology

study of cellular functions

18

Pathological physiology

study of the effects of diseases on organ and organ system functions

19

Chemical Level

atoms--monomer--polymer

20

cellular level

cellular structures (organelles) that give rise to individual cells

21

tissue level

similar cells working together to carry out a specialized function

22

organ level

more than one tissue type working together to carry out a specialized function

23

organ system level

consists of several organs working together

24

organism level

consists of all organ systems working together

25

Outer surface of the human body

Integumentary system

26

Bones of the body

Skeletal system

27

Regulatory system

Nervous system

28

Glands that secrete hormones to regulate organ system

Endocrine system

29

Transport of gases nutrients

Cardiovascular system

30

Host defense

Lymphatic system

31

Gas exchange

Respiratory system

32

Food processing and absorption of nutrients

Digestive system

33

Elimination of waste products derived from your blood

Urinary system

34

Production of sperm and eggs

Reproductive system

35

Homeostasis

presence of a stable internal environment

36

Homeostatic Regulation

physiological adjustments by organ systems to maintain homeostasis

37

What are 3 things are involved in Homeostatic Regulation?

1. Receptor 2. Control Center 3. Effector

38

Receptor

detects stimuli or changes in the surrounding environment

39

Stimulus

A change the we see, smell, hear or feel

40

Control Center

receives and processes information transmitted from the receptor

41

Effector

Carries out commands from the control center Produces a change that maintains homeostasis.

42

Homeostatic Regulation involves ______ ______

feedback mechanisms

43

Negative Feedback

original stimulus is opposed (negatively effected) by the effector response Minimizes changes to maintain homeostasis.

44

Positive Feedback

original stimulus is reinforced (not opposed) by the effector response. Increases changes that deviate from homeostasis.

45

Supine

lying down, face up

46

Prone

lying down, face down

47

Cephalon

head

48

Cervicis

neck

49

Thoracis

Thorax or chest

50

Regions of the human body

Cephalic region Cervical region Thoracic region

51

Planes and sections

Transverse / cross section Frontal / coronal Sagittal

52

Divides body into a top and bottom

Transverse Plane

53

Divides body into a front and back

Frontal Plane

54

Divides body into a left and right side

Sagittal Plane

55

Attached to the inner walls of the body cavity

Parietal

56

Visceral

Attached to the organ (viscera) visceral layer is part of the organ

57

Body cavities

internal chambers that hold organs

58

Body cavities funtion in .....

protecting organs from physical stress allowing for changes in size and shape

59

Ventral Body Cavity

Superior Thoracic Cavity Inferior Abdominopelvic Cavity

60

Serous membrane is unique to .......

Ventral body cavity

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Thoracic Cavity consists of ....

Single pericardial cavity Two Pleural Cavity

62

Serous membrane that surrounds the heart is called ______

pericardium

63

Pericardium covering the heart is the

visceral pericardium

64

Pericardium lining the wall of the thoracic cavity is the

parietal pericardium

65

Which cavity surrounds the lungs

Pleural cavity

66

Pleura

rib

67

What is the difference between visceral pleura and the parietal pleura?

Visceral pleura covers the lung and the parietal pluera lines the wall of the thoracic cavity.

68

Serous membrane always consists of what two layers?

Visceral layer and Parietal layer

69

Describe the region known as the abdominopelvic cavity.

Anterior cavity that extends from the diaphragm to the pelvis.

70

The body part that processes sensory information and decides if a response is needed is called the _______.

Control center

71

ANTERIOR

Front surface

72

VENTRAL

Belly side

73

Posterior

Back surface

74

Cranial

Head

75

INFERIOR

Below

76

MEDIAL

Toward body's longitudinal axis

77

LATERAL

Away from body's longitudinal axis

78

PROXIMAL

Toward base

79

DISTAL

Away from base

80

SUPERFICIAL

At, near, close to body surface

81

DEEP

Far from body surface

82

Transverse Plane

Perpendicular to long axis

83

Sagittal Plane

Parallel to long axis

84

Transverse Section

Separates superior from inferior portions

85

Sagittal Section

Separates right and left

86

Midsagittal Section

Separates right and left along midline

87

Parasagittal Section

Separates right and left unequally

88

Coronal Section

Separates anterior and posterior

89

Oxygen O

Water, gas O2 energy production

90

Carbon C

Component of all organic molecules

91

Hydrogen H

Water and most compounds

92

Nitrogen N

In proteins, nucleus acids, other organic cmpds

93

Calcium Ca

Bones, teeth Membrane function, nerve impulses Muscle contraction, blood clotting

94

Phosphorus P

Bones, teeth, nucleic acids , hi-energy cmpds

95

Potassium K

Membrane function Nerve impulses, muscle contraction

96

Sodium Na

Blood volume, membrane function Nerve impulses, muscle contraction

97

Chlorine Cl

Blood volume, membrane function Water absorption

98

Magnesium Mg

Cofactor for many enzymes

99

Sulfur S

Proteins

100

Iron Fe

Oxygen transport Energy

101

Iodine I

Hormones of thyroid gland

102

aer-, aeros

air: aerobic metabolism

103

arter-, arteria

artery: arterial

104

bio, bios

life: biology

105

-blast, blastos

germ: osteoblast

106

bronch-, bronchus

windpipe, airway: bronchial

107

cardi-, cardio-, -cardia, kardia

heart: cardiac, cardiopulmonary

108

cerebr-, cerebrum

brain: cerebral

109

cervic-, cervicis

neck: cervical vertebrae

110

chondro-, chondros

cartilage: chondrocyte

111

cranio-, cranium

skull: craniosacral

112

cyt-, cyto-, kytos

hollow cell: cytology, cytokine

113

derm-, derma

skin: dermatome

114

end-, endo-, endon

within: endergonic

115

epi-

on: epimysium

116

hemo-, haima

blood: hemopoiesis

117

hemi-

one-half: hemisphere

118

histo-, histos

tissue: histology

119

hyper-

above: hyperpolarization

120

hypo-

under: hypothyroid

121

inter-

between: interventricular

122

iso-

equal: isotonic

123

leuk-, leuko-, leukos

white: leukemia, leukocyte

124

lyso-, -lysis, -lyze

a loosening: hydrolysis

125

myo-, mys

muscle: myofi lament

126

nephr-, nephros

kidney: nephron

127

neur-, neuri-, neuro-

neuron, nerve: neural

128

-ology, logos

the study of: physiology

129

ost-, oste-, osteo,

bone: osteal, ostealgia

130

oto-, otikos

ear: otolith

131

peri-

around: perineurium

132

phago-

to eat: phagocyte

133

photo-, phos

light: photalgia, photoreceptor

134

physio-, physis

nature: physiology

135

pre-, prae

before: precapillary sphincter

136

pulmo-

lung: pulmonary

137

retro-

backward: retroperitoneal

138

sarco-, sarkos

flesh: sarcomere

139

scler-, skleros

hard: sclera, sclerosis

140

sub-

below: subcutaneous

141

super-

above or beyond: superficial

142

vas-

vessel: vascular

143

Integumentary system

Protects body from environmental hazards; controls body temperature

144

Skeletal system

Supports, protects soft tissues: stores minerals; forms blood cells

145

Muscular system

Moves and supports body; produces heat

146

Nervous system

Directs immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems

147

Cardiovascular system

Transports cells and dissolved materials internally, including nutrients, wastes, gases

148

Lymphatic system

Defends against infection and disease

149

Respiratory system

Delivers air to sites where gas exchange can occur

150

Digestive system

Processes food and absorbs organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, water

151

Urinary system

Eliminates excess water, salts, waste products; controls pH

152

Reproductive system

Produces sex cells and hormones

153

Cephalon

Head

154

Cervicis

Neck

155

Thoracis

Thorax or Chest

156

Abdomen

Abs

157

Loin

Lower back

158

Pubis

Anterior pelvis

159

Axilla

Armpit

160

Brachium

Arm

161

Antebrachium

Forearm

162

Manus

Hand

163

Pes

Foot

164

Planta

Sole