Ch. 3 Lecture Notes Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 3 Lecture Notes Review Deck (126)
1

lysosome

degrades damaged/old organelles and foreign bodies

2

mitochondria

functions as the principal site of ATP synthesis It is the cell's power plant

3

Rough ER

the location of synthesis and sorting of proteins that will be secreted or inserted into cell membrane.

4

Endoplasmic means

Endo- inside

plasmic- cytoplasm

5

Reticulum means

Network

6

The cell membrane is the _____ ______ of the cell.

outer boundary

7

Which of these is not a protein?

  • Hemoglobin
  • Cholesterol
  • Aquaporin

Cholesterol

8

List the 3 types of membrane proteins

  • Transmembrane
  • Lipid-anchored
  • Peripheral

9

organelles are formed by _______ _______.

organic compounds

10

Cells assume unique ______ related to their functions.

shapes

11

Cells are the smallest ....

basic units of life.

12

List the components of the Cell Theory

1. Cells are the building block of plants & animals

2. Cells are the basic units of life

3. Cells are produced by division of pre-existing cells

4. Cells maintain homeostasis, individually and collectively

13

The pH inside a cell is _____.

7.2 in the cytoplasm.

14

Cytology

study of cells

15

A free ribosome does what?

makes proteins that stay inside the cell

16

A ribosome attached to the ER does what?

makes proteins for the cell membrane, lysosome or ECF

17

Cytosol

The intracellular fluid that contains ions and proteins but excludes organelles

18

Cytoplasm

Cytosol plus organelles

19

Cytoskeleton consists of

  • Microtubules
  • Microfilaments

20

Microfilaments can be found in what organelle

Microvilli

21

Microvilli have a special function, they .....

increase the cell surface area to aid absorption of nutrients.

22

Cell movement of sperm is accomplished by what non-membranous organelle?

Flagella

23

Ribosomes are unique because

they are composed of RNA plus protein.

24

Key feature of organelles:

______ chemicals and ______ so they proceed without interference.

Isolate

reactions

25

Smooth ER

ER without ribosomes

26

Site for synthesis of secretory proteins

RER-Rough ER

27

Power Plant

Mitochondria

28

What organelle makes ribosomes?

Nucleus

29

The porous double membrane surrounding the cellular DNA is the _____.

Nuclear Envelope

30

Four things the cell membrane does:

  1. Physical barrier between ECF and ICF
  2. Regulates exchange of nutrients, wastes etc
  3. Monitors changes in the environment
  4. Provides structural support

31

Phospholipids and Cholesterol are _____.

membrane lipids

32

Cholesterol in the membrane ...

contributes rigidity

33

The Harvard Cell Video demonstrated what?

The movement of molecules & ions across the cell membrane and into and out of the cell.

34

Primary factor affecting membrane transport

cell membrane permeability

35

Semipermeable membrane-

allows some substances to cross freely, prevents others from crossing

36

Diffusion-

movement of solutes from a high concentration region to low concentration region until equilibrium is reached

37

Active Process

requires ATP

38

Passive Process

doesn't require energy

39

Diffusion and Filtration are examples of

Passive membrane transport

40

Why can't the ions diffuse through the cell membrane?

Because the ions have an electrical charge (they are polar). Lipid bilayer is non-polar and repulses charged ions.

41

What special feature allows cholesterol to pass the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer?

Cholesterol is non-polar and thus is lipid soluble.

42

Osmotic pressure exerted by a solution on a cell is called _____.

tonicity

43

A cell in isotonic solution

is a normal cell, not swelling or shrinking

44

Hypotonic solution causes a cell to

swell or gain water from the ECF

45

Hypertonic solution causes a cell to

shrink or lose water to the ECF

46

Process where solutes are aided across the membrane.

Carrier-mediated transport

47

A type of diffusion

*that requires no ATP

*where the solute is not lipid soluble

Facilitated Diffusion

48

Diffusion across a membrane that is not dependent on concentration gradients

Active Transport

49

Vesicular Transport

movement of substances, in vesicles, in and out of cells

50

List the 3 types of endocytosis

  1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  2. Pinocytosis
  3. Phagocytosis

51

White bloods cells eating an infectious bacteria is an example of ______.

phagocytosis

52

Process where the Golgi apparatus sends a vesicle full of protein to the membrane for secretion

Exocytosis

53

What non-membranous organelle do you see?

Flagellum

54

From left to right what kind process do you see?

Diffusion across a membrane that ends with equilibrium.

 

55

Label A, B, C in this diagram.

 

A. Rough ER

B. Golgi Apparatus

C. Plasma Membrane

56

Label this diagram.

 

 

57

Label this diagram.

 

 

58

Carrier Membrane Transport requires _________ _______ called carrier protein.

transmembrane protein

59

Name the 2 types of Carrier-Mediated Membrane Transport.

a. ???-no ATP, ex. Glucose Transport

b. ???-requires ATP, ex. Na+/K+ exchange pump

a. Facilitated Diffusion

b. Active Transport

60

Vesicular transport requires a vesicle which is lipid packaged.

2 types include:

a. ??-begins at cell membrane

b. ?? begins at Golgi complex

a. Endocytosis

b. Exocytosis

61

Extracellular Fluid + Extracellular Matrix = Extracellular Material

Cells + Extracellular Material = ???

Tissues

62

Four types of tissues.

  1. Epithelial
  2. Connective
  3. Muscle
  4. Neural

63

Tissues consist of a _______________ that perform a common function.  The cells may be surrounded by _____.

group of specialized cells

extracellular material

64

  1. Epithelial tissue consists of ____ and ____ tissue (w/o blood vessels).
  2. Epithelial cells are continously _____.
  3. Epithelial tissue is found covering ______ that include skin, body cavities, ________, _______.

  1. glands / avascular
  2. replaced
  3. surfaces / digestive tract / respiratory tract

65

Epithelial Tissue Functions

  • Provide physical protection
  • Control permeability
  • Provide sensation
  • Form Glands that produce specialized secretions

66

Epithelial cells are _____ attached together forming a physical barrier.  They are connected together by cell _____ molecules forming junctions.

Name 3 types of junctions.

tightly / adhesion

  1. tight junctions
  2. gap junctions
  3. desmosomes

67

68

69

Functions of Epithelium.

  1. physical barrier protecting internal/ ____ tissues from external environment
  2. regulates ______- substances entering or leaving the body
  3. Detects changes in environment.  Accomplishes this with _____ receptors and thermoreceptors located ____ in the epithelium

  1. deep
  2. permeability
  3. touch / deep

70

  • deep tissue found throughout the body
  • very diverse, many different types
  • extracelluar material makes up most of the connective tissue
  • connective tissue is vascular
  • transports materials such as nutrients
  • stores energy
  • protects from foreign microorganisms

71

List the subtypes of these 3 connective tissues

  • I. Connective tissue proper
    • a. Loose
    • b. Dense
  • II. Fluid connective tissue
    • a. Blood
    • b. Lymph
  • III. Supporting connective tissue
    • a. Hyaline cartilage
    • b. Elastic cartilage
    • c. Fibrocartilage

72

  • I.  Examples of Cell types:
  • II. Fibers that form Extracellular matrix
    • a. collagen fibers
    • b. ______ fibers
    • c. ______ fibers
  • III. Extracellular fluid aka ...
    • main function is to...

 

  • I. cell types: fibroblasts, macrophages, adipocytes
  • II. Fibers in ECM
    • a. collagen fibers
    • b. elastic fibers
    • c. reticular fibers
  • III. ECF aka ground substance
    • main function is to prevent bacteria from moving freely

73


name and describe the specialized epithelial cells that produce secretions.

Exocrine glands -secretions thtare released outside the body. eg. milk, sweat

Endocrine system--secretions released into the surrounding tissues and blood. eg. hormones

74

  1. Collagen Fibers--strong and ____
  2. Elastic Fibers--_________
  3. Reticular Fibers--Interwoven, ___

  1. unbranched
  2. stretchable and unbranched
  3. thin and unbranched

75

76

Extracellular Fluid is _____ like ____.

Fills the _____ between cells and _____.

Prevents ______ from moving freely.

Also known as _________.

thick like syrup

spaces / fibers

bacteria

ground substance

77

Loose connective tissue

  • functions in _____ epithelia and blood vessels
  • _____ organs
  • includes _____ tissue

  • supporting
  • protects
  • adipose / fatty

78

Dense Connective Tissue.

Strong tissue that functions in supporting ____, ____, ____.

Includes tendons and _____.

bones, muscles, organs

ligaments

79

What do you find in the Fluid Connective Tissue?

red and white blood cells

plasma and lymph fluid

80

Blood and Lymph fluid are examples of ____.

fluid connective tissues

81

Dense regular connective tissue

82

83

Dense irregular connective tissue

84

List the types of cells found in the areolar tissue.

areolar tissue = connective tissue proper

I. Loose connective tissue

cells:  fat cells, macrophages

II. Dense connective tissue

 cells: tendons, ligaments, fibroblasts

85

This cell type:

  1. synthesizes the ECM and collagen
  2. plays a critical role in wound healing
  3. is the most common cell in animals
  4. can migrate slowly over substratum

Fibroblasts

86

Fluid Connective Tissue.

eg. Whole Blood, lymph fluid

87

Where can you find this tissue type?

Lymphatic capillary.

Throughout the body.

88

What makes lymphatic capillaries unique?

89

General Characteristics.

Extracellular material is a dense ground substance.

Chondrocytes produce cartilage.

Osteoblasts produce bone.

Supporting Connective Tissue

90

3 types of cartilage

  1. _____- eg. ribs and sternum
  2. _____- eg. epiglottis
  3. _____- eg. spinal column, knee

  1. hyaline cartilage
  2. elastic cartilage
  3. fibrocartilage

91

Osteocytes / Osteoblasts are Supporting Connective tissues that specialize in ...

producing the extracellular matrix called bone

92

Two types of bone:

  1. spongy bone
  2. compact bone

93

94

All 3 types of muscle tissue contain contractile proteins, but they exhibit different shapes:

What shape does the skeletal muscle exhibit?

Skeletal muscle looks like packed straws, with the nucleus on the outer edge.

95

All 3 types of muscle tissue contain contractile proteins, but they exhibit different shapes:

What shape does the cardiac muscle exhibit?

Cardiac muscle is branched, with a central nucleus.

96

All 3 types of muscle tissue contain contractile proteins, but they exhibit different shapes:

What shape does the smooth muscle exhibit?

Smooth muscle looks like an elongated eyeball (spindle shape), with the nucleus in the center.

97

Skeletal muscle

98

Cardiac Muscle cells

99

Smooth muscle cells

100

My cells are short, spindle shaped, nonstriated with a single, central nucleus.

Smooth muscle tissue.

101

My cells are short branched, striated, usually a single nucleus.

Cardiac muscle tissue.

102

My cells are long, cylindrical, striated and multinucleate.

Skeletal muscle tissue.

103

Compact Bone

104

Skeletal muscle tissue under a microscope.

105

Cardiac Muscle tissue under a microscope

106

smooth muscle tissue under a microscope

107

You will find me combined with connective tissues and neural tissues.

Skeletal muscle tissue

108

I'm found only in the Heart.

Cardiac muscle tissue.

109

I'm found in the walls of:

blood vessels,

digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive organs

Smooth muscle tissue

110

111

112

Remember both of these cell types are equally important.

113

Label the receiver, control center, effector

Dendrite is the receiver

Cell body is the control center

Axon is the effector

114

What tissue specializes in communication via electrical impulses?

Nervous tissue

115

Nervous tissue

  • ______ the functions of most organs.
  • Consists of _____ and ____.

  • Regulates
  • Neurons  (nerve cells)
  • Neuroglia (glial cells)

116

Neuroglia provide ________ to neurons.

Such as _____, and _____ effect for communication signals.

support

nutrients / insulating

117

Four types of Membranes.

  1. Mucous membrane
  2. Serous membrane
  3. Cutaneous membrane
  4. Synovial membrane

118

Mucous membrane - protects ___ tissues

Secretes ___ that protects ____ tissue.

Lines ___ and ___ tracts.

underlying

mucus / epithelial

digestive / respiratory

119

Serous membrane lines the subcavities of _______.

Reduces ______ between organs by providing cushioning with _______.

the ventral body cavity

friction

serous fluid

120

This membrane is thick, waterproof and dry.

Cutaneous membrane.

121

Sheet like structure that forms the surface of our bodies.

Cutaneous membrane.

122

Synovial membrane -- located at our _______

Secretes synovial fluid which ......

joints

lubricates joints to reduce friction

aids in smooth movement

123

Synovial membrane is what type of tissue?

Epithelial connective tissue / Areolar tissue

124

The structure of neural tissue helps in what functions?

Conducting Electrical Impulses

Carrying information

125

126

 
  • a. simple squamous epithelium
  • b. simple cuboidal epithelium
  • c. simple columnar epithelium
  • d. stratified squamous epithelium
  • e. stratified cuboidal epithelium
  • f. stratified columnar epithelium