Ch. 2 Lecture Notes Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 2 Lecture Notes Review Deck (52)
1

A _____ bond is formed when a pair of electrons is shared.

Covalent

2

A _____ bond is formed when a pair of electrons is shared equally.

Nonpolar covalent

3

List the 3 particles of the atom

Protons
Neutrons
Electrons

4

List the 5 types of inorganic compounds

H20
CO2
O2
Acids, Basis, Buffers
Salts

5

List the 3 types of chemical reactions

Decomposition
Synthesis
Reversible

6

Decomposition

reaction that breaks compounds into smaller substances by breaking chemical bonds

7

Synthesis

reaction that forms chemicals bonds and joins smaller molecules into larger molecules

8

Reversible

Involves both the decomposition and synthesis reactions

9

Chemical reaction that requires energy in form of ATP

Enzyme chemical reaction

10

What do enzymes do?

increase the rate and efficiency of chemical reactions

11

What proteins catalyze reactions?

Enzymes

12

Site of the enzyme that makes/breaks a covalent bond is the ______.

active site

13

List the four types of organic compounds

Carbohydrates
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Lipids

14

Monomer for Carbohydrate

Monosaccharide

15

Polymer for Nucleic Acids

Polynucleotide

16

Monomer for Protein

Amino Acid

17

Polymer for Protein

Polypeptide

18

What is the most important source of energy for the cell?

Carbohydrates

19

What are the four types of lipids?

Fatty Acids
Fats aka triglycerides
Steroids
Phospholipids

20

What are the components of a Phospholipid?

2 fatty acids
1 glycerol
1 phosphate group

21

Where can you find phospholipids?

cell membrane

22

Proton has what kind of electrical charge?

Positive

23

Neutron has __________.

no electrical charge

24

Electrons are know for their ________.

negative electrical charge

25

Matter exists in 3 states. Name them.

Solid
Liquid
Gas

26

pH measures ........

the concentration of H+ in a solution

27

Compounds are different from molecules because .........

A compound will display different characteristics than the individual elements.

28

What is a Hydrogen bond?

a weak bond between a partially positive H atom and a partially negative O or N atom

29

What is an Ionic bond?

A bond formed between electrically charged atoms called ions that have opposite charges.

30

Element

any substance that can't be broken down to a different substance by normal chemical means

31

Elements that differ in number of neutrons are called _______.

isotopes

32

Solution

Solvent + solute

33

Water is the solvent in the human body, what are solutes?

inorganic and organic compounds

34

Buffers are compounds that _______pH by _______ or _______ H+

maintain
removing
releasing

35

Salts

Consist of any cation (except H+) and any anion except (OH-)
Held together by ionic bond
Dissociate in water

36

Salts inside the human body are known as ___.

electrolytes

37

List some electrolytes

Na+
K+
Ca++
Cl-

38

All the chemical reactions in the body make up your ________

metabolism

39

Enzymes are referred to as _________.

catalysts

40

Active site is the .....

location on the protein that catalyzes the making or breaking of a covalent bond

41

A reaction that removes a H2O compound from the reagents to form a covalent bond is a _____

Condensation reaction

Dehydration synthesis reaction

42

Hydrolysis involves water in a reaction to accomplish what?

To break a compound into smaller substances.

43

Inside the body, a decomposition reaction is called what?

Catabolism

44

Inside the cells, the synthesis reactions are called what?

Anabolism

45

A nucleotide consist of what 3 parts


Base
Sugar
Phosphate group

46

Adenine bonding with Thymine is an example of what?

complimentary base pairing of nucleotides

47

In complimentary base pairing what binds to guanine (G)?

Cytosine (C)

48

if a polynucleotide consists of a combination of bases denoted by the letters A, G, C and U

is the polynucleotide RNA or DNA? Explain.

is it likely to be double stranded or single stranded? Why?

RNA--Uracil (U) is specific to RNA

Single stranded. RNA is always single stranded.

49

What elements are found in the nucleotide?

N, C, H, O, P

50

What does this formula represent?
C6H12O6 + O2 ---> CO2 + H20 + ATP

Cellular Respiration

51

ATP stands for _______________.
It is a form of _______.

Adenosine triphosphate.
Energy.

52

An _______ atom is very ______. Its outermost _____ is not full.

It will either lose or _____ an _______, or form a bond to become stable.

unstable / reactive
electron shell

gain / electron