Ch. 6 Lecture Notes Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 6 Lecture Notes Review Deck (52)
1

The muscular system produces _____ by ____.
It moves the body, ____, and _____.
It maintains body ____ and position.
Supports ____ tissues and maintains body ___.

movement / contracting
blood / food
posture
soft / temperature

2

List the types of muscle tissue.

Smooth muscle tissue
Cardiac muscle tissue
Skeletal muscle tissue

3

The muscular system incorporates:

a. muscle tissue
b. connective tissue
c. nervous tissue

4

Describe structure, location, and function of smooth muscle tissue.

structure - spindle shaped, single centrally located nucleus.

location - surrounding walls of hollow organs and blood vessels.

function - involuntary contractions that move food, waste, blood

5

Describe structure, location, and function of cardiac muscle tissue.

structure - branched, separated by intercalated discs, usually single central nucleus, smaller than skeletal muscle cells

location - walls of the heart

function - involuntary contractions that move blood through the blood vessels

6

Describe structure, location, and function of skeletal muscle tissue.

structure - long, large, multinucleated cells. Nuclei located near cell membrane

location - attached to bones

function - voluntary movements like walking
also involuntary movements eg. the diaphragm

7

Cardiac muscle contains _____ and _____, myofibrils and appears ______.

actin / myosin
striated

8

True or false.
Skeletal muscle contains actin, myosin, myofibrils and appears striated.

True

9

The muscular system consists of __ skeletal muscles.

700

10

Skeletal muscle is an organ made up of what tissue types?

Skeletal muscle tissue
Nervous tissue
Connective tissue

11

What are the layers of connective tissue?

1. epimysium
2. perimysium
3.endomysium

12

Epymysium

surrounds entire muscle organ
separates the muscle from surrounding tissue

13

Tendons

bundles of connective tissue

14

Broad sheets of connective tissue that attach skeletal muscle to skeletal muscle.

aponeurosis

15

Connective tissue is _____ ____ skeletal muscle.

wrapped around

16

Perimysium

surrounds fascicles
innervated by blood vessels and nerves

17

fascicles

bundle of muscle fibers

18

muscle fibers

skeletal muscle cells

19

Endomysium

surrounds individual muscle fibers

20

Tendons & aponeurosis are made up of these 3 connective tissues:

endomysium
perimysium
epimysium

21

In nervous tissue, which make up the following:
a. Receiver
b. Control center
c. Effector

a. Dendrite
b. Cell body
c. Axon

22

List the parts of the muscle fiber structure.

a. sarcolemma
b. sarcoplasma
c. transverse (T) tubules
d. sarcoplasmic reticulum
e. myofibrils
i.) myofilaments ii.) sarcomeres

23

sarcolemma

cell membrane of the muscle fiber (skeletal muscle cell).
contains receptors at sites called motor-end plates

24

sarcoplasm

cytoplasm of skeletal muscle cell

25

T-tubules

scattered openings across the sarcolemma that open into tubes that run deep into the muscle fiber

Filled with ECF

26

Function of T-tubules?

allow electrical impulses to reach the interior of the muscle fiber

27

A specialized smooth ER that stores Ca++

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

28

Sarcoplasmic reticulum form a ______ network around each ____.

Contains chambers called ____ ___ that contain high concentrations of ___.

tubular / myofibril

terminal cisterna / Ca++

29

Describe the location of the terminal cisterna.

Part of the sarcoplasmic reticulum that is adjacent to both sides of each T-tubule.

30

Myofibrils are bundles of _____ and _____ myofilaments.

There are ______ to _____ within each individual muscle fiber.

thick / thin

100s / 1000s

31

True or False.
Myofibrils are attached to the sarcolemma.

True

32

Myofilaments consist of ___ and _____.

actin / myosin

33

Thin filaments are made up of ____.
Thick filaments are made up of ______.

actin
myosin

34

Sarcomeres consist of repeating contractile units. There are _______ sarcomeres per _______, aligned one after the other.

~10,000 / myofibril

35

Muscle fiber contraction is due to the _____ of thick and thin filaments at the _____ level.

Myofibril is the collection of thousands of ______.

interaction / sarcomere

sarcomeres

36

True or False.
Sarcomeres do not consist of myofilaments.

False

37

This is an intercellular junction between the nervous system and muscular system.

Neuromuscular junction

38

The motor neuron's ____ _____ synapses with the _____ on the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle fiber.

synaptic terminal
motor-end plate.

39

Another name for the synaptic knob.

Synaptic terminal

40

The very end of an axon is called ______.

synaptic terminal

41

The neuromuscular junction is located where the end of an axon meets a motor-end plate.

This is the intersection of a ______ and a skeletal ____ ____.

motor neuron

muscle fiber.

42

Synaptic terminal has vesicles that contain the neurotransmitter ______.

Acetylcholine (ACh)

43

ACh is the _____ ______ stimulant.

skeletal muscle

44

The space between the synaptic terminal and the motor-end plate is called the ____ _____.

_____, an enzyme is found in this cleft.

synaptic cleft

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)

45

AChE functions to _____.

inactivate ACh.

46

The motor end plate contains a high concentration of______.

ACh receptors

47

An electrical charge stimulates Ca++ ion channels to open and release ACh.

ACh then binds with the ACh receptor at the motor-end plate and ____ an electrical charge along the ____.

triggers / sarcolemma

48

ACh binding leads to the release of intracellular Ca++ from the _____ _____ of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

The rise of Ca++ within the muscle fiber leads to ____.

terminal cisterna

muscle fiber contraction

49

Summarize Sliding Filament Theory.

The shortening of a sarcomere due to thin and thick filaments sliding past each other.

50

_____ covers the active site on actin.

Tropomyosin

51

____ binds to and stabilizes tropomyosin.

Troponin

52

A myosin head will have an ___ attached.

ATP