Flashcards in Ch. 5 Lecture Notes Review Deck (65)
The skeletal system consists of .......
bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints
The functions of the skeletal system are ...
2. storage of Calcium salts
3. blood cell production
4. protection of organs and tissues
5. movement--used as levers by skeletal muscles
List the different bone shapes.
Long bones--longer than they are wide
short bones--similar to a cube
flat bones--thin, flat, curved
The shaft of the bone consists of ______.
The marrow cavity is located within the _____.
List the two types of bone marrow.
a. red marrow
b. yellow marrow
The enlarged end of the bone is called _____.
It consists of ____ overlying ____.
compact bone / spongy bone
Describe the periosteum
covers the outher surface of the bone except at the joint.
protects the bone.
contains blood vessels.
ligaments and tendons attach to it.
Fibrous on the outside, cells on inside.
Endosteum lines the ____ walls of the _____ cavity.
Involved in the ______ and _______ of bone.
inner / marrow
repair / remodeling
Three types of bone cells:
3. Osteoclasts-"release Ca++"
These cells are the most abundant cells in bone, the most mature bone cells, and they function in bone repair.
These cells absorb Ca++, produce new bone.
Giant cells with 50+ nuclei, release Ca++ when breaking down bone.
Two types of bone tissue:
1. Compact Bone
2. Spongy Bone
Compact bone aka _____.
The basic units of compact bone are _____
Osteons consist of a bone ____ organized into ___ with a central blood supply.
The central canal is a _____ opening that allows blood vessels to transport ______ and ____ to and from bone tissue.
passageways allowing blood vessels from the central canal to connect with blood vessels of the periosteum and the marrow cavity
Cylindrical sheets of calcified matrix
Little cracks in lamellae are called ...
Canaliculi connect _____ to _____ vessels.
lacunae / blood
Lacunae have small openings that contain____.
Located between the _____.
A structure unique to the spongy bone?
Spongy bone contains no _____.
Trabeculae composed of the same _____ as osteons.
Describe the structure of trabeculae.
Rod-like structures which form a network with open spaces. Bone marrow fills the open spaces. Made of same ECM as osteons.
Two structures that are found in both spongy and compact bone.
1. Canaliculi--small channels
2. Lacunae -- small pockets
Osteogenesis is the production of ____.
Ossification is the process that involves replacing cartilage with bone tissue produced by ______.
Describe the two types of ossification
Intramembraneous ossification, when bone develops within sheets of connective tissue, eg. flat bones
Endochondral ossification, when bone replaces hyaline cartilage eg. most bones
Define bone remodeling.
What is the purpose of remodeling?
The continous removal & replacement of bone matrix in bone.
Remodeling of bone allows your bones to adapt to stress.
The cells that are responsible for maintaing vone structure are _______.
What cell types are active in bone remodeling?
What does the axial skeleton do?
Supports and protects organ systems in the brain cavity, spinal cavity, and ventral body cavity.
List the cranial bones (8).
List the facial bones (14).
inferior nasal conchae
List the bones of the thoracic cage/
ribs (12 pairs)
List the associated bones.
ossicles (ear bones)
List the bones of the vertebral column
Sacrum (5 fused)
Coccyx (4 fused)
The appendicular skeleton consists of ....
The clavicle and scapula make up the ____.
List bones of the upper limb.
Carpal bones (8/hand)
metacarpal bones (5/hand)
The hip bones aka _______ make up the _____.
List the bones of the lower limb.
Joints are found wherever ________.
Joints require a balance between _____, _____, need for ___.
two bones meet (articulate)
strength / stability / movement
True or false.
Some joints are immovable.
Joints are classified based on:
List the 3 types of joints based on structure.
1. fibrous--consist of fibrous connective tissue eg. cranial sutures
2. cartilaginous-consists of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage eg. between ribs & sternum
3. synovial-surrounded by articular joint capsule made of fibrous tissue
The ends of bones at ball & socket joint are covered by ______.
articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage)
The types of joints based on function are:
a. synarthorosis --do not move, eg cranial sutures
b. amphiarthoris-- allow slight movement eg. ribs&sternum
c. diarthrosis -- freely movable joint, eg. humerus & scapula
____ and _____ are used interchangeably.
Eg is the _____ joint.
Diarthrosis / Synovial
What are the 3 parts of the synovial joint?
Joint (articular) capsule
What is the function of the joint (articular) capsule?
Fibrous outer layer that surrounds the joint cavity.
What does the synovial membrane do?
secretes synovial fluid which lubricates the joint.
Why do we need articular cartilage?
Because it is a cartilage pad that functions as a shock absorber inside the joint.
True or False.
Arthro = joint
List the 7 parts of the knee joint.
What are the bursae?
Small sacks of connective tissue filled with synovial fluid. Function as a cushion between tendons, ligaments, and the surrounding tissues.
What do fat pads do?
protect the articular cartilage by serving as packing material.
fill the spaces created in the joint during movement.
Ligaments of the knee are found _____ and ___ of the joint. Function to ____ bone to bone.
inside / outside
fibrocartilage pads that act as shock absorbers in the knee
4 types of Synovial joints (structure)
Gliding joint eg. carpal bones
Hinge joint eg. humerus & ulna
Pivot joint eg. atlas & axis
Ball & socket joint eg. femur & coxal bone
When the surfaces of two bones slide past each other.
movement that decreases the angle between two articulating bones.
movement that increases the angle between two articulating bones (opposite of flexion).
Movement away from the midline.
movement towards the midline.
Circular movement at the distal end of a bone at synovial joint.