Ch. 5 Lecture Notes Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 5 Lecture Notes Review Deck (65)
1

The skeletal system consists of .......

bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints

2

The functions of the skeletal system are ...

1. support
2. storage of Calcium salts
3. blood cell production
4. protection of organs and tissues
5. movement--used as levers by skeletal muscles

3

List the different bone shapes.

Long bones--longer than they are wide
short bones--similar to a cube
flat bones--thin, flat, curved
irregular bones--complex

4

The shaft of the bone consists of ______.
The marrow cavity is located within the _____.
List the two types of bone marrow.

compact bone
diaphysis

a. red marrow
b. yellow marrow

5

The enlarged end of the bone is called _____.
It consists of ____ overlying ____.

epiphysis
compact bone / spongy bone

6

Describe the periosteum

covers the outher surface of the bone except at the joint.
protects the bone.
contains blood vessels.
ligaments and tendons attach to it.
Fibrous on the outside, cells on inside.

7

Endosteum lines the ____ walls of the _____ cavity.

Involved in the ______ and _______ of bone.

inner / marrow

repair / remodeling

8

Three types of bone cells:

1. Osteocytes-"housekeepers"
2. Osteoblasts-osteogenesis
3. Osteoclasts-"release Ca++"

9

These cells are the most abundant cells in bone, the most mature bone cells, and they function in bone repair.

The osteocytes.

10

These cells absorb Ca++, produce new bone.

Osteoblasts

11

Giant cells with 50+ nuclei, release Ca++ when breaking down bone.

Osteoclasts

12

Two types of bone tissue:

1. Compact Bone
2. Spongy Bone

13

Compact bone aka _____.
The basic units of compact bone are _____

Dense bone
osteons

14

Osteons consist of a bone ____ organized into ___ with a central blood supply.

matrix
rings

15

The central canal is a _____ opening that allows blood vessels to transport ______ and ____ to and from bone tissue.

tube-like
nutrients
waste

16

Perforating canal

passageways allowing blood vessels from the central canal to connect with blood vessels of the periosteum and the marrow cavity

17

Lamellae

Cylindrical sheets of calcified matrix

18

Little cracks in lamellae are called ...

canaliculi

19

Canaliculi connect _____ to _____ vessels.

lacunae / blood

20

Lacunae have small openings that contain____.
Located between the _____.

osteocytes.
lamellae

21

A structure unique to the spongy bone?

Trabeculae

22

Spongy bone contains no _____.
Trabeculae composed of the same _____ as osteons.

osteons
ECM

23

Describe the structure of trabeculae.

Rod-like structures which form a network with open spaces. Bone marrow fills the open spaces. Made of same ECM as osteons.

24

Two structures that are found in both spongy and compact bone.

1. Canaliculi--small channels
2. Lacunae -- small pockets

25

Osteogenesis is the production of ____.
Ossification is the process that involves replacing cartilage with bone tissue produced by ______.

bone

osteoblasts

26

Describe the two types of ossification

Intramembraneous ossification, when bone develops within sheets of connective tissue, eg. flat bones

Endochondral ossification, when bone replaces hyaline cartilage eg. most bones

27

Define bone remodeling.

What is the purpose of remodeling?

The continous removal & replacement of bone matrix in bone.

Remodeling of bone allows your bones to adapt to stress.

28

The cells that are responsible for maintaing vone structure are _______.

Osteocytes

29

What cell types are active in bone remodeling?

Osteocytes
Osteoclasts
Osteoblasts

30

What does the axial skeleton do?

Supports and protects organ systems in the brain cavity, spinal cavity, and ventral body cavity.

31

List the cranial bones (8).

frontal bone
parietal bones
occipital bones
temporal bones
sphenoid bone
ethmoid bone

32

List the facial bones (14).

maxilla
palatine
vomer
zygomatic
nasal
lacrimal
mandible
inferior nasal conchae

33

List the bones of the thoracic cage/

sternum
ribs (12 pairs)

34

List the associated bones.

Hyoid bone
ossicles (ear bones)

35

List the bones of the vertebral column

Cervical (7)
Thoracic (12)
Lumbar (5)
Sacrum (5 fused)
Coccyx (4 fused)

36

The appendicular skeleton consists of ....

pectoral girdle
pelvic girdle
upper limbs
lower limbs

37

The clavicle and scapula make up the ____.

pectoral girdle

38

List bones of the upper limb.

Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Carpal bones (8/hand)
metacarpal bones (5/hand)
Phalanges (14/hand)

39

The hip bones aka _______ make up the _____.

coxal bones
pelvic girdle

40

List the bones of the lower limb.

Femur
patella
tibia
fibula
tarsal bones
metatarsal bones
phalanges

41

Joints are found wherever ________.
Joints require a balance between _____, _____, need for ___.

two bones meet (articulate)
strength / stability / movement

42

True or false.
Some joints are immovable.

True.

43

Joints are classified based on:
1. ...
2. ...

1. Structure
2. Function

44

List the 3 types of joints based on structure.

1. fibrous--consist of fibrous connective tissue eg. cranial sutures
2. cartilaginous-consists of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage eg. between ribs & sternum
3. synovial-surrounded by articular joint capsule made of fibrous tissue

45

The ends of bones at ball & socket joint are covered by ______.

articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage)

46

The types of joints based on function are:

a. synarthorosis --do not move, eg cranial sutures
b. amphiarthoris-- allow slight movement eg. ribs&sternum
c. diarthrosis -- freely movable joint, eg. humerus & scapula

47

____ and _____ are used interchangeably.
Eg is the _____ joint.

Diarthrosis / Synovial
knee

48

What are the 3 parts of the synovial joint?

Joint (articular) capsule
Synovial membrane
Articular cartilage

49

What is the function of the joint (articular) capsule?

Fibrous outer layer that surrounds the joint cavity.

50

What does the synovial membrane do?

secretes synovial fluid which lubricates the joint.

51

Why do we need articular cartilage?

Because it is a cartilage pad that functions as a shock absorber inside the joint.

52

True or False.

Arthro = joint

True

53

List the 7 parts of the knee joint.

joint capsule
synovial membrane
articular cartilage
menisci
ligaments
fat pads
bursae

54

What are the bursae?

Small sacks of connective tissue filled with synovial fluid. Function as a cushion between tendons, ligaments, and the surrounding tissues.

55

What do fat pads do?

protect the articular cartilage by serving as packing material.

fill the spaces created in the joint during movement.

56

Ligaments of the knee are found _____ and ___ of the joint. Function to ____ bone to bone.

inside / outside
attach

57

Menisci

fibrocartilage pads that act as shock absorbers in the knee

58

4 types of Synovial joints (structure)

Gliding joint eg. carpal bones
Hinge joint eg. humerus & ulna
Pivot joint eg. atlas & axis
Ball & socket joint eg. femur & coxal bone

59

Describe gliding.

When the surfaces of two bones slide past each other.

60

Describe flexion.

movement that decreases the angle between two articulating bones.

61

Describe extension.

movement that increases the angle between two articulating bones (opposite of flexion).

62

Describe abduction

Movement away from the midline.

63

Describe adduction.

movement towards the midline.

64

Describe circumduction.

Circular movement at the distal end of a bone at synovial joint.

65

Describe rotation.

Movement in a left to right direction.
eg. head movement left to right (involved atlas & axis)