Ch. 4 Lecture Notes Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 4 Lecture Notes Review Deck (44)
1

What are the two major parts of the Integumentary system?

Cutaneous membrane
Accessory structures

2

Cutaneous membrane is made up of what?

Epithelial and Connective tissues

3

What are the accessory structures/organs?

Hair, nails, various exocrine glands

4

What are the functions of the skin?

Protection
Temperature homeostasis
Synthesize Vitamin D
Stores Nutrients
Sensory Reception
Excretion

5

The epithelial tissue makes up the ____

epidermis

6

The connective tissue makes up the ______

dermis

7

Epidermis is ______ and consist of ________.

avascular / stratified squamous epithelium

8

What are the 5 layers of the epidermis?

Stratum germinativum/basale
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum corneum

9

Stratum basale is a single layer of cells and the deepest epidermal layer.
It is attached to a _____, which separates epidermis from dermis.

basement membrane

10

Stratum basale contains germinative cells (___ cells). New cells are produced and slowly migrate to the ____

stem
surface

11

Stratum basale also contains ______, which produce a colored pigment called ______.

melanocytes
melanin

12

Stratum spinosum

spiny layer, cell enter the stratum spinosum and continue to increase in cell number

13

Stratum granulosum

grainy layer, cell no longer divide, but do produce keratin

14

Stratum lucidum

found in thick skin, consist of flat densely packed cells filled with keratin

15

Stratum corneum

15 to 30 layers of dead keratinized epithelial cells, the most outer layer of epidermis

16

2 layers that make up the Dermis

Papillary layer
Reticular layer

17

What are the functions of the papillary layer?

Its capillaries support and nourish the epidermis.
forms dermal papillae that project into the dermis.

18

Reticular layer

provides flexibility,
prevents damage to surrounding tissues

19

This layer contains accessory structures.

reticular layer

20

Dermis is innervated with ____, ____, ___.

blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerve fibers

21

Hypodermis aka subcutaneous layer

Not part of the integument
located beneath the dermis.
Consist of connective tissue containing fat cells.

22

Where is epithelial tissue located?

Covering surfaces that include the skin, digestive tract, respiratory tract and body cavities.

23

True or False.
It takes 2 to 4 weeks to migrate from stratum germinativum to stratum corneum.

True.

24

True or False
Hypodermis is part of the Integumentary System.

False.

25

List 3 facts about the subcutaneous layer.

Located beneath the dermis.
Supports the skin relative to deep tissue.
Consists of connective tissue containing many fat cells.

26

List the two types of glands found in integument.

Sebaceous glands.
Sweat glands.

27

Keratin is found in ___ and ___.

hair / nails

28

True or False.
Organs called hair follicles produce hair.

True

29

Hair consists of ______ filled with _______.

dead cells
keratin

30

Hair Structure.
Hair ______ consist of walls made-up of ______ that extends into the dermis.

At the top of the hair papilla lies the hair follicle which pushes out ____.

follicles / epidermis

new epithelial cells which are slowly filled with keratin.

31

Hair Structure.
Hair ____ is the extension of connective tissue containing capillaries and nerves.

papilla

32

Hair Structure.
The part of the hair attached to the skin is the ___.

The part of the hair seen at the surface is part of the__.

hair root

hair shaft

33

List the functions of the hair.

protects underlying skin
filters foreign substances in areas such as the nose, eyes and ears.
senses physical contact with the skin surface

34

Describe the arrector pili.

A bundle of smooth muscle cells.
When stimulated it pull on the hair follicle causing the hair to stand up.

35

Oil glands aka ______.
Secrete a substance called _______, an oily ____ secretion that lubricates the hair and skin.

sebaceous glands.
sebum
lipid

36

Sweat glands aka ________.

List the two types.

sudoriferous glands.

1. Apocrine sweat glands-"body odor"
2. Merocrine sweat glands

37

Which sweat gland releases secretion into the hair follicle?

Apocrine sweat gland

38

Which sweat gland releases secretions directly to the skin?

merocrine sweat gland

39

Describe the sweat produced by the merocrine gland.

99% water and some inorganic/organic substances.
Function to lower body temperature, protection against harmful substances, and removing microorganisms.

40

Nails protect the ___ of fingers and toes.

tips

41

Nail body is the _____ part of the nail. It is made up of dead _______ cells.

Nail bed is the ______ covered by the nail body.

visible / keratinized

epidermis

42

The site where nail production begins is _____, consists of _____ stem cells.

nail root
epithelial

43

Describe the cuticle.

The part of the stratum corneum that extends a little over the exposed nail nearest the nail root.

44

Forms a pale crescent moon shape on the nail body.

Lunula.