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WSET ® Level 3 Wine > Above + Beyond: Not on the Exam, but Fun to Know > Flashcards

Flashcards in Above + Beyond: Not on the Exam, but Fun to Know Deck (282)
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1
Q

Where can Vitis vinifera trace its origin to?

How long ago did it first appear?

A

Vitis vinifera is a Eurasian grape that can trace its roots back 6000-8000 years to the Caucasus region (modern day countries of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaïdjan, and a few others).

2
Q

What are high-trained and low-trained vines?

A

High-trained vines are vines that are trained high off the ground to avoid frost and humidity. 

Low-trained vines are vines that are trained closer to the ground so the grapes can benefit from radiating heat coming off the ground.

 

3
Q

Image of a biodynamic vineyard.

A

Note the biodiversity in this vineyard and how happy the vines look.

(These vines are also cordon trained)

4
Q

Image of a conventional vineyard.

A

Note the compacted soil, the crushed plastic cup, the difference in the color of the grass, and how the vineyard looks as though it were napalmed.

5
Q

What are the minimum hours of sun a vine needs during the growing season?

A

1500 hours minimum

6
Q

Do red grapes or white grapes generally need more sun to reach full ripeness?

A

Red grapes generally need more sun to reach full ripeness.

7
Q

What is the minimum amount of rain per year a vine needs to survive and grow?

A

700mm (27.6 inches) rainfall per year

8
Q

Name the cold ocean current that affects California.

A

California Current

9
Q

Name the southwesterly wind that cools Swan District in Australia.

A

Fremantle Doctor

10
Q

Name the southeasterly wind that cools down Cape Town, South Africa.

A

Cape Doctor

The Cape Doctor blows up through False Bay from spring (August/September) through late summer (May/April) clearing away smog, etc. and replacing it with fresh sea air.

11
Q

Describe the 'Table cloth' phenomenon in South Africa.

A

The 'Table cloth' in South Africa is air that blows up from False Bay and picks up warm moisture from the Bay, then runs up against the eastern side of Table Mountain creating clouds, and then rainfall, on the eastern side of Table Mountain.

12
Q

What is the Heat Summation Index and where is it generally used?

A

The Heat Summation Index, also known as the Winkler Index, is used predominantly in New World countries to classify their climates.

The Heat Summation Index is classified by Regions I, II, III, IV, and V.

This Index is based on the assumption that vines are not active below 50ºF.  Each day between April 1 - October 31 (the growing season) is considered a "degree day."  Each degree day has a value which is determined by taking the average daily temperature for that day and subtracting 50 from it (e.g. 90º as an average, subtract 50º from it, giving that degree day a value of 40º).  When each degree day's value is added up between April 1- Oct 31, that sum determines what Region class that appellation is in.

Region I - 1500 - 2500 degree days (e.g. Champagne)

Region II - 2500 - 3000 degree days (e.g. Bordeaux)

Region III - 3000 - 3500 degree days (e.g. Rioja)

Region IV - 3500 - 4000 degree days (e.g. Napa Valley)

Region V - 4000+ degree days (e.g. Jerez)

13
Q

How do Europeans classify their climates?

A

By Zones.

Zone A - coldest, e.g. the UK and Mosel

Zone B - e.g. Alsace, Slovenia

Zone C1 - e.g. Bordeaux, Burgundy, northern Italy

Zone C2 - e.g. Languedoc-Roussillon, central Italy

Zone C3a - e.g. northern Greece, Bulgaria

Zone C3b - hottest, e.g. southern Italy, Corsica

14
Q

What are the differences between:

  • Macroclimate
  • Mesoclimate
  • Microclimate
A

Macroclimate

  • refers to the climate of a region, e.g. Burgundy;

Mesoclimate

  • refers to the climate of a village or a cluster of vineyards on a slope, e.g. the village of Puligny-Montrachet or the Grand Cru slope of Chablis;

Microclimate

  • refers to the climate of a very small area, such as a single vineyard or even the climate within the vines and around the canopy, e.g. vines at the top of the hill vs. the bottom of the hill in Clos Saint-Jacques (Gevrey-Chambertin) or the terraces in Valtellina, Lombardy.
15
Q

How can a viticulturist tweak a vine's microclimate?

A

Through canopy management.  

The viticulturist can either allow the canopy to become lush -- which allows for more shade and cooling effect in the fruit zone -- or by pulling shoots off the vine to allow the grapes more sun exposure.

16
Q

Generally speaking, in what regions will one find the most vintage variation?

A

In regions that are *just* suitable for growing vines as they are susceptible to changes in weather.  These just-suitable growing areas do not have a consistent or stable climate year-in and year-out.

Regions such as Bordeaux, Chablis, and Mosel can have more vintage variation because they can be affected by heavy rainfall at harvest, springtime frost, or summertime hail.

Regions such as Mendoza, McLaren Vale, and Central California will not have as much vintage variation because they have much more stable, predictable climates.

17
Q

List the 3 AOPs of Chablis.

 

A

1. Petit Chablis AOP

2. Chablis AOP

  • Chablis 1er Cru is within Chablis AOP

3. Chablis Grand Cru AOP 

  • 1 AOP separated into 7 Grand Cru plots
18
Q

What is unique about the Chablis Grand Cru AOP?

A

The Chablis Grand Cru AOP covers all 7 Grand Cru plots under the same appellation of origin.

By contrast, every other Grand Cru vineyard in the Côte d'Or is designated as its own AOP.

19
Q

What is the main soil type in Chablis?

A

Kimmeridgian limestone

20
Q

What is the sole AOP in Burgundy to allow Sauvignon Blanc?

A

Saint-Bris AOP

Saint-Bris is in Yonne, near Chablis.

21
Q

Name all 7 Grand Cru vineyards of Chablis Grand Cru AOP.

A

From west to east:

  1. Bougros
  2. Les Preuses
  3. Vaudésir
  4. Grenouilles
  5. Valmur
  6. Les Clos
  7. Blanchot
22
Q

Who first planted vines in Burgundy?

A

Romans first introduced vines to the region in the 1st century A.D.

23
Q

What is Napoleonic Code and how does it affect Burgundy?

A
  • Prior to the 18th century land in France was owned by the nobility and the Catholic church;

  • During the French Revolution in 1789, lands were taken away from the Church and divided among local farmers and tradesmen;

  • Napoleonic Code, written in the 1800s, required lands to be divided equally between all heirs;

  • Today, landowners continue to divvy up their properties equally amongst all their children; hence Burgundy's fragmented ownership.

24
Q

Define what a négociant is in Burgundy.

 

A

A négociant in Burgundy is a producer who:

  • purchases grapes, juice, or finished wine from grape growers to supplement their own production;
  • from these purchases, they are capable of producing larger quantities at more affordable prices.

Most négociants are based in the city of Beaune. Some négociants own land and purchase additional grapes as a supplement; others do not and simply blend finished wine or make wine from purchased grapes.​

25
Q

Name some famous négociants in Burgundy.

A
  • Bouchard Père et Fils
  • Louis Latour
  • Louis Jadot
  • Joseph Drouhin
  • Chanson
  • Boisset
  • Faiveley
26
Q

In Burgundy, what are the two AOPs produced from Aligoté?

A
  • Bourgogne Aligoté AOP
  • Bouzeron AOP
27
Q

Where is Chassagne-Montrachet AOP, and what styles of wine does it produce?

A

Chassagne-Montrachet is in the Côte de Beaune.

Chassagne-Montrachet makes primarily still, dry white wines from Chardonnay and some red wines from Pinot Noir.

28
Q

What are the 5 Grand Crus located in the villages of Chassagne-Montrachet and Puligny-Montrachet? 

A
  1. (Le) Montrachet Grand Cru AOP
  2. Bâtard-Montrachet Grand Cru AOP
  3. Bienvenue-Bâtard-Montrachet Grand Cru AOP
  4. Chevalier-Montrachet Grand Cru AOP
  5. Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet Grand Cru AOP
29
Q

Where is Meursault AOP, and what styles of wine does it produce?

A

Meursault is in the Côte de Beaune.

Meursault is best known for its still, dry, white wine made from Chardonnay, but some dry red wines are also produced here.
 

30
Q

Which wine is most likely to be fat and full in body with buttery characteristics?:

  • Chassagne-Montrachet
  • Puligny-Montrachet
  • Meursault 
A

Meursault AOP

There are some pundits who say that it's Meursault's soils, which are lower in humidity due to a lower water table, which help attribute that fatness.

31
Q

What is the Hospices de Beaune?

A

Historically, the Hospices de Beaune (also known as Hôtel-Dieu) was a charity hospital for the sick and poor founded in 1443 by Chancellor Nicolas Rolin.  

Having been bequeathed vineyards over the centuries, the Hospices de Beaune is one of the largest landholders (58ha) in the Côte de Beaune. It began auctioning its wines in 1859 to cover the costs of patient care.

Now a museum, the Hospices de Beaune holds a charity auction to cover building renovations and general upkeep.

32
Q

Which river created the formal topography of Burgundy?

A

The Saône River

33
Q

What wines are produced in Aloxe-Corton AOP ?

A

Both red and white wines are produced in Aloxe-Corton, but it is better known for its reds than its whites. 

The soil in Aloxe is rich in iron which makes sturdy, structured Pinot Noirs.

34
Q

Corton Grand Cru can produce which of the following:

  1. only white wine 
  2. only red wine 
  3. either white or red
A

Either white or red, although the majority of production is red wine.

35
Q

What villages share Corton Grand Cru AOP?

A
  • Aloxe-Corton
  • Pernand-Vergelesses
  • Ladoix-Serrigny
36
Q

Where is Chambolle-Musigny AOP located, and what style of wine does it produce?

A

Chambolle-Musigny is in the Côte de Nuits.

Chambolle-Musigny produces only still, dry red wine.

37
Q

Where is Morey-Saint-Denis AOP located, and what style of wine does it produce?

A

Morey-Saint-Denis is in the Côte de Nuits.

Morey-Saint-Denis is famous for its still, dry red wine from Pinot Noir, but some dry white wines are also produced here. 

38
Q

What are the main differences between a Burgundian Pinot Noir and a new world Pinot Noir?

A

Burgundy: Wines tend to have higher acidity, moderate alcohol, and tarter, red fruit flavors.

New world: Wines are usually fuller in body, have higher alcohol, and a riper fruit expression.

39
Q

Which appellations in the Côte Châlonnaise make white wine only?

A
  • Montagny AOP - Chardonnay
  • Bouzeron AOP - Aligoté 
40
Q

In Burgundy, are Grand Cru vineyards ever blended with other Grand Crus?

A

Grand Crus in Burgundy are rarely ever blended together, although when it does happen the wine is declassified to the 1er Cru level, e.g. Domaine de la Romanée-Conti's Cuvée Duvault Blochet.

Only 1er Crus are allowed to be blended with other 1er Crus and maintain their 1er Cru classification.

41
Q

What is the largest Grand Cru in Burgundy?

A

Corton

42
Q

What are the 2 Grand Crus of Chambolle-Musigny?

A
  1. Musigny
  2. Bonnes Mares
43
Q

What are the Grand Crus of Morey-Saint-Denis?

A
  • Clos de la Roche
  • Clos Saint-Denis
  • Clos des Lambrays
  • Clos de Tart

There is a smidge of the Bonnes Mares Grand Cru in Chambolle that bleeds into Morey-Saint-Denis.

44
Q

What styles of wine are produced under the Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOP?

What are the required grape varieties, and what are their minimum percentages?

 

A

Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOP makes only light red or rosé wines

Blending Regulation:

  • Minimum 30% Pinot Noir
  • Minimum 15% Gamay
45
Q

What is the primary style of wine produced in Puligny-Montrachet AOP?

A

Still, dry, white wines made from Chardonnay.

46
Q

Who are the winemakers in the "Gang of Four"?

How did they get this moniker?

A
  • Marcel Lapierre
  • Guy Breton
  • Jean-Paul Thévenet
  • Jean Foillard

These four winemakers were dubbed the "Gang of Four" by their importer, Kermit Lynch, in the 1980s.  All followed a more natural approach to winemaking by using old practices while "technology" was rising around them.  They eschewed chemical fertilizers and pesticides, added minimal sulfur dioxide (or none at all), harvested late, and used only the healthiest grapes by sorting rigorously.

47
Q

What is the most famous vineyard in Morgon (it's also Morgon's highest point of elevation)?

A

Côte du Py

Known for its black granite and manganese-rich decomposed schist, Côte du Py makes structured, long-lived wines.

48
Q

Climate-wise, is Beaujolais closer to Burgundy or Rhône?

A

Beaujolais is closer to the Rhône as far as climate goes.

The soils in Beaujolais (granite and schist) are also more similar to the Rhône than they are to Burgundy.

49
Q

Europe's largest lake is in Hungary.  What is the lake?

A

Lake Balaton

50
Q

What are some other white grapes grown in Hungary?

A
  • Olasz Rizling (Welschriesling)
  • Cserszegi Füszeres
  • Kiralyleányka
  • Chardonnay
  • Pinot Gris
51
Q

What are the red grapes of Hungary?

A
  • Kékfrankos (Blaufränkisch)
  • Kékoportó (Portugieser)
  • Zweigelt
52
Q

What is Bull's Blood?

A

Bull's Blood in Hungarian is Egri Bikavér, a style of red wine from the region Eger.  Eger is between Budapest and Tokaj.

Historically Egri Bikavér was made predominantly with Kadarka, but this grape has grown out of fashion.

Egri Bikavér now is made primarily with Kékfrankos and other red grapes.

53
Q

What are the 3 regions of Hungary?

A
  1. Transdanubia
  2. Great Plain
  3. North Hungary
54
Q

What are the soils around Lake Balaton?

A

Iron-rich volcanic debris.

55
Q

What is a gönc?

A

A gönc is a traditional Hungarian oak barrel that holds approximately 136 liters.  Gönci (plural) are used in the production of Tokaji Aszú.

Historically, aszú-filled puttony were dumped into gönci (barrels) and depending on the number of puttony used, the level of sweetness would be reflected in a level between 3-6.  These levels indicating the sweetness have been eliminated as of the 2013 vintage, and Tokaji Aszú is now simply labeled Aszú.

56
Q

The first vineyards in Bordeaux were planted where and by whom?

A

Romans first planted grapes in an area most likely near Saint-Emilion in the first century B.C.

57
Q

Why was the 12th century marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II especially important for the Bordeaux region?

A

Eleanor of Aquitaine's dowry included the region of Bordeaux, giving the English control of the region and making the wines of Bordeaux especially accessible to English wine drinkers.

This marriage established England as an important market for Bordeaux wines.

58
Q

Where does the term Bordeaux come from?

A

Bordeaux gets its name from two French words, "bord" meaning border and "eau" meaning water. The region of Bordeaux does exactly that: borders the water of the Atlantic Ocean.

59
Q

Where does the grape Merlot get its name from?

A

Merlot gets its name from the French word for blackbird, "Merle".

The Bordelais named the grape after the blackbird because it is the number one pest at harvest for most of Bordeaux.

60
Q

What is a "super-second"?

A

A "super second" is a château that consistently sells for a higher price and is seen as higher quality than where its placement in the 1855 Classification would suggest.

Super-seconds will often sell for a far greater price than other Second Growths, but less than First Growths.

61
Q

What are some examples of "super seconds?"

A

A few examples widely considered to be "super seconds" are:

2nd Growths

  • Château Cos d'Estournel
  • Château Ducru-Beaucaillou
  • Château Léoville Las Cases
  • Château Léoville-Poyferré
  • Château Montrose
  • Château Pichon-Longueville Comtesse Lalande
  • Château Pichon-Longueville Baron
  • Château Rauzan-Ségla

3rd Growths

  • Château Palmer

5th Growths

  • Château Lynch-Bages
  • Château Pontet-Canet
62
Q

What famous professor at the University of Bordeaux was instrumental in creating the concept of a "second label" wine?

A

Emile Peynaud

Peynaud was a major advocate of only using the best grapes to make the "Grand Vins" of Bordeaux and championed the concept of a "second label" as a way to keep the quality of the highest wines consistent.

63
Q

What is a "second label?"

A

"Second labels" or "second wines" are wines made from cuvées not selected to go into a château's Grand Vin.

A second label does not necessarily mean a wine that is lower in quality; some châteaux simply make second label wines from other vineyards, younger vines, or different grape blends than those used for their "Grand Vins."

64
Q

What are the five classifications of the Gironde?

A
  1. 1855 Classification
  2. Graves Classification
  3. Saint-Émilion Classification
  4. Cru Bourgeois du Médoc Classification
  5. Cru Artisans Classification
65
Q

What is "La Place de Bordeaux?"

A

La Place de Bordeaux is a three-tier, de facto system of wine production (châteaux owners), brokerage (brokers), and sales (merchants) that controls the trade of wine in Bordeaux.

La Place de Bordeaux is a system, not a location.

66
Q

List the 4 St. Émilion Premier Grand Cru Classé A châteaux as of the 2012 ranking.

A
  1. Château Angélus 
  2. Château Ausone
  3. Château Cheval Blanc
  4. Château Pavie

Châteaux Angélus and Pavie were both elevated from Grand Cru Classé B in the 2012 classification.

67
Q

What are the 4 satellites of Saint-Émilion?

A

From north to south, they are:

  1. Lussac-Saint-Émilion
  2. Montagne-Saint-Émilion
  3. Puisseguin-Saint-Émilion
  4. Saint-Georges-Saint-Émilion
68
Q

How many changes have been made to the 1855 Classification since it was introduced at the Universal Exhibition in Paris?

A

3

1. Château Cantemerle was added as a Fifth Growth in 1855 while the Universal Exhibition was still running;

2. Mouton-Rothschild was elevated from Second Growth to First Growth in 1973;

3. Third Growth Margaux estate Château Dubignon was absorbed by Château Malescot St. Exupéry.

69
Q

What style of wine is made in the Premières Côtes de Bordeaux AOP?

A

The Premières Côtes de Bordeaux AOP is authorized to produce semi-sweet white wines only.

The Premières Côtes de Bordeaux AOP should not be confused with the Côtes de Bordeaux group of AOPs which are approved for dry red and white wines as well as some sweet wines.

70
Q

What exactly is Bordeaux Mixture and who invented it?

A
  • Copper sulphate (CuSO4) and slaked lime (Ca(OH)2)
  • Invented in Bordeaux by Pierre-Marie-Alexis Millardet
71
Q

What two appellations of Bordeaux are named after their soils?

A

The Graves AOP and Graves de Vayres AOP are both named after their gravel soils.

72
Q

What is the main beneficial impact of Botrytis on white grapes, and how does it change the resulting wine?

A

The main impact of botrytis is diminishing the proportions of liquids to solids inside the grape. This concentrates flavors and creates a more complex and intense finished wine, including notes of saffron, ginger, mushrooms, and honey.

Botrytis will change the resulting wine by:

  • lowering the water content of the grape by 1/2
  • reducing sugar by 1/3
  • dropping tartaric acid by 5/6
  • diminishing malic acid by 1/3
73
Q

What is the only Premier Cru Supérieur (from Sauternes) of the 1855 Classification?

A

Château d'Yquem

Historically Château d'Yquem commanded much higher prices than any other Bordeaux wine. As the only Premier Cru Supérieur, Château d'Yquem is literally in a class by itself.

74
Q

How much wine will one vine's worth of botrytized grapes yield?

A

As a general rule, one vine's worth of botrytized grapes will produce between 1-3 glasses of wine.

75
Q

What smaller appellation contains all the wines that were classified in the Graves Classification?

A

All the wines that were classified in the Graves Classification lie within the newer appellation of Pessac-Léognan AOP, which was created in 1987.

The Graves Classification was created in 1953 and revised in 1959, both well before the Pessac-Léognan AOP was established.

76
Q

What is the only château to be classified in both the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855 and the Graves Classification?

A

Château Haut-Brion

Not only was Château Haut-Brion the only wine from Graves to be a Premier Cru Classé wine, but it was the only wine from Graves in the entire 1855 Classificaiton. 

With the Graves Classification of the 1950s, Château Haut-Brion became the only estate in Bordeaux to be listed on two separate classifications.

77
Q

Why was the Malbec grape more prevalent in older Bordeaux vintages but not more recent ones?

A

The frost of 1956 lead to a severe winter freeze that killed many of the Malbec vines in Bordeaux. Merlot replaced Malbec due to its ability to withstand the cold winter temperatures better than Malbec.

This is why many Bordeaux wines made before 1956 contain much higher Malbec content than current Bordeaux wines.

78
Q

What is a "Petit Château"?

A

A "Petit Château" is an unoffical term given to unclassified properties in the Bordeaux region.

79
Q

What does En Primeur mean and why is it important to the Bordeaux wine trade?

A

En Primeur means "in futures."

En Primeur represents the uniquely Bordelais tradition of selling the wine in futures while still maturing in barrel.

80
Q

What was Tuscany's first Super Tuscan?

A

Tenuta San Guido's 'Sassicaia', which is made predominantly with Cabernet Sauvignon.

Its inaugural release was 1968.

81
Q

What is another name for Nebbiolo in Lombardy?

A

Chiavennasca

82
Q

What are the four defining lakes of the Lombardy region?

A
  • Lake Como
  • Lake Garda
  • Lake Iseo
  • Lake Maggiore
83
Q

Valtellina Superiore DOCG must be made from what percentage of Nebbiolo?

A

Valtellina Superiore DOCG must be made from at least 90% Nebbiolo.

84
Q

What appellation in Lombardy is known for producing wines from the Lambrusco family of grapes?

A

Lambrusco Mantovano DOC

Lambrusco Mantovano DOC is unique in that it is the only Lambrusco made outside of Emilia-Romagna.

85
Q

What grape variety has the greatest vineyard acreage in Lombardy?

A

Croatina

86
Q

How many DOCGs are in Lombardy?

A

5

  • Franciacorta
  • Moscato di Scanzo (Scanzo)
  • Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico
  • Sforzato di Valtellina
  • Valtellina Superiore
87
Q

What are the subzones of the Valtellina Superiore DOCG?

A

From west to east:

  1. Maroggia
  2. Sassella
  3. Grumello
  4. Inferno
  5. Valgella
88
Q

The Lugana DOC is shared between Lombardy and what other Italian region?

A

Veneto

89
Q

What is the smallest DOCG in Lombardy in terms of geographical area?

A

Moscato di Scanzo DOCG

In terms of geographical area, Moscato di Scanzo is the smallest DOCG in all of Italy.

90
Q

Still wines from the geographical area of Franciacorta must be labeled under what appellation?

A

Curtefranca DOC

91
Q

Sforzato di Valtellina DOCG is authorized to produce what style of wine?

A

Sforzato di Valtellina DOCG are Nebbiolo-based wines, vinified dry, made using the appassimento (grape-drying) process.

92
Q

The Lugana DOC is located nearest which lake?

A

Lake Garda

93
Q

The Lugana DOC makes wines primarily from what grape variety?

A

Verdicchio

In Lombardy, Verdicchio is also known as Trebbiano di Lugana. For Laguna DOC white wines, 90% must be Verdicchio (Trebbiano di Lugana).

94
Q

The Valtellina wine region runs along what river?

A

The Valtellina wine region runs almost perfectly east-west along the course of the Adda River.

95
Q

What grapes are used to make the wines of Curtefranca DOC?

A

Curtefranca DOC whites are made from Chardonnay and Pinot Bianco.

Reds are made from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Nebbiolo, Barbera, and Merlot.

96
Q

What grape is allowed in the sparkling wines of Franciacorta DOCG but not the still wines of Curtefranca DOC?

A

Pinot Nero

In this part of Lombardy, Pinot Nero (Pinot Noir) can be used exclusively for sparkling wines.

97
Q

The Vespolina grape variety is more widely known as what in Lombardy?

A

Ughetta

Ughetta/Vespolina is more widely grown in Piedmont, but plays a significant role in the Nebbiolo-based wines of Lombardy as well.

98
Q

What does the term Chiaretto mean on a bottle of Lombardian wine?

A

Chiaretto is a term for rosato (rosé) style wines made in certain parts of Lombardy.

Chiaretto is also used in the Veneto for rosato wines from the Bardolino DOC, called Bardolino Chiaretto.

 

99
Q

The Croatina grape variety often goes by what other name in Lombardy?

A

Bonarda

100
Q

What lake lies north of Franciacorta DOCG and Curtefranca DOC?

A

Lake Iseo

101
Q

When did Vitis vinifera arrive in the Northern Rhône?

A

At least 2000 years ago with the arrival of the Romans, who planted hillside vineyards, stone walls and small terrasses.

102
Q

What are échelas?

A

Largely seen in the Northern Rhône, échelas are wooden spikes used to support gobelet-trellised vines.  

They are most often found in vineyards on steep slopes.

103
Q

What are E. Guigal's La La La wines?

A

La Mouline

  • fantasy name, not a parcel; fruit sourced from Côte Blonde; always has a bit of Viognier in the blend;

La Turque

  • parcel located on Côte Brune; always has a bit of Viognier in the blend;

La Landonne

  • parcel located on Côte Brune; always 100% Syrah; usually the longest lived of the three.
104
Q

What styles of wine are produced in Saint-Péray?

A

Still and sparkling dry white wines

Sparkling wines must be aged for minimum 12 months prior to release with no minimum lees aging.

105
Q

What does the term Oeil de Perdrix refer to on bottles of Southern Rhône wines?

A

Oeil de Perdrix refers to the pale pink or salmon-like color of Southern Rhône rosé wines.

Oeil de Perdrix literally means "partridge's eye."

106
Q

Which two cities define the Southern Rhône growing region?

A

Montélimar and Nîmes

107
Q

What styles of wine are made in Rasteau AOP?

A

Rasteau AOP wines are made as dry, still reds, or as fortified white, tawny (tuilé), rosé, and red styles.

Rasteau AOP wines are mainly made from Grenache, and the red style is the most common.

108
Q

The Banyuls AOP shares the same grape growing area as what other Roussillon appellation?

A

Collioure AOP

Banyuls AOP wines will always be fortified wines while Collioure AOP produces dry table wines.

109
Q

There are more of what kind of wine producers in Roussillon than any other region of France?

A

Roussillon has more organic and biodynamic wine producers than any other wine region in France.

Roussillon's unique climate of warm days, low rainfall, and low disease pressure allow more viticulturists to practice organic and biodynamic farming than in other regions of France.

110
Q

What is Lledoner Pelut?

A

Lledoner Pelut is a red/black grape mostly grown in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of France. It is thought to be a mutation of Grenache Noir.

111
Q

What appellation in Roussillon is known for producing sweet fortified wines?

A

Rivesaltes AOP

112
Q

What are the sub-denominations of the Provence AOP?

A
  • Fréjus
  • La Londe
  • Pierrefeu
  • Sainte Victoire
113
Q

The wines of Malepère AOP must be made from a minimum of 50% what grape?

A

Merlot

114
Q

Which AOP in Provence is unique in that its production is over 75% white wine?

A

Cassis AOP

115
Q

How many estates are currently entitled to call themselves Crus Classés in Provence?

A

18

  1. Clos Cibonne
  2. Clos Mireille
  3. Domaine du Jas d’Esclans
  4. Domaine de Rimauresq
  5. Domaine de la Croix
  6. Domaine du Noyer
  7. Château de L’Aumérade
  8. Château de Brégançon
  9. Château du Galoupet
  10. Château de Mauvanne
  11. Château Minuty
  12. Château de Roubine
  13. Château Ste. Marguerite
  14. Château de St. Martin
  15. Château St. Maur
  16. Château Ste. Roseline
  17. Château de Selle
  18. Château de la Clapière
116
Q

The finest white wines from Provence are usually based on which two grape varieties?

A
  • Rolle (Vermentino)
  • Clairette
117
Q

What is the name of the wire muzzle, or wire cage, on a bottle of Champagne?

A

Muselet

118
Q

What is the name of the plastic insert in the neck of a sparkling wine bottle to catch the sediment during riddling?

A

Bidule

119
Q

What is the echelle des crus?

A

The echelle des crus (literally, 'ladder of growths') is a system that ranks the villages of Champagne on a percentage scale.

There are 17 Grand Cru villages each with a score of 100%.

There are 44 Premier Cru villages with scores between 90-99%.

120
Q

The third press in Champagne, which is required by law, is called ___.

A

Rebêche

The rebêche has to amount to 1-10% of the total liters pressed. It is used for distillate.

121
Q

List the most commonly seen types of Champagne producers.

A

RM (Récoltant Manipulant) - a grower producer; someone who makes wine from their estate fruit;

CM (Coopérative Manipulant)- co-operative cellar;

NM (Négociant Manipulant) - a house that buys grapes or juice and blends it with their own, if they own any land, and makes the Champagne, e.g. Moët et Chandon;

MA (Marque d’Acheteur) - Buyers' Own Brand; they purchase Champagne that's been made and sell it under their own name, e.g. a supermarket brand.

122
Q

What is the CIVC and what do they do?

A

The CIVC, whose full name is Comité Interprofessional du Vin de Champagne, is the government organization responsible for overseeing the Champagne industry.

The CIVC does the following:

  • mediates discussions between big Champagne houses and smaller growers;
  • sets grape prices;
  • regulates production methods;
  • manages the marketing and promotion of Champagne.
123
Q

Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico DOCG must be made from what percentage of Pinot Noir?

A

Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico DOCG must be made from at least 70% Pinot Noir.

124
Q

How long must non-vintage Franciacorta spend aging on its lees?

A

18 months

Franciacorta has the longest minimum aging requirement of any non-vintage sparkling wine. Keep in mind that many producers of all styles of sparkling wines greatly exceed the legal minimum aging requirements.

125
Q

What style of wine is Satèn Franciacorta DOCG?

A

Satèn is a Brut Blanc de Blancs with only 5 atmospheres of pressure.

This is significant as most traditional method sparkling wines are closer to 6 atmospheres of pressure.

126
Q

What are some other names for Tank Method?

A
  • Charmat
  • Cuvée Close
  • autoclave
127
Q

When is Asti bottled?

A

Asti is bottled when an importer places an order for it; all the juice collected at harvest isn't made into the delicately sparkling wine as the characteristics that made it so delightful - bright fruit and fresh floral characteristics - would develop vegetal and secondary flavors if it hangs out too long in bottle.

The unfermented must is stored in a chilled tank and is made in batches, only when required.

128
Q

In which 3 Northern Rhône appellations can sparkling wines be made?

What method(s) are used?

A

1. Crémant de Die AOP

  • Méthod Traditionelle
    • based on Clairette grape

2. Clairette de Die AOP

  • Méthod Traditionelle
    • based on Clairette grape
  • Méthode Dioise Ancestrale
    • based on Muscat Blanc à Petit Grains

3. Saint-Péray AOP

  • Méthode Traditionnelle
    • based on Marsanne and Roussanne
129
Q

The wines from Blanquette Méthode Ancestrale AOP are made from what grape variety?

A

Mauzac

By law this wine can only be made from Mauzac grapes.

130
Q

For all styles of Franciacorta, the required time spent aging on the lees may not begin until what date?

A

February 1st of the year following harvest.

131
Q

Excluding non-vintage Franciacorta, how long must all other styles of Franciacorta be aged on their lees?

A

Satèn: 24 months

Rosé: 24 months

Vintage: 30 months

Riserva: 60 months

132
Q

The third press in Champagne, which is required by law, is called ___.

A

Rebêche

The rebêche has to amount to 1-10% of the total liters pressed. It is used for distillate.

133
Q

The training methods most often used in Champagne are ___ and ___.

A

The training methods most often used in Champagne are Taille Chablis (Chardonnay) and Cordon de Royat (Pinot Noir, Meunier).

134
Q

In both vine training methods used in Champagne, vines are always ___-pruned.

A

Spur-pruned

135
Q

What is the French term for blending?

A

Assemblage

136
Q

What is the French term for riddling?

A

Remuage

137
Q

This monk, who was the cellar master at Hautvillers in 1668, is widely (but falsely) credited with inventing sparkling Champagne.

A

Dom Pérignon

138
Q

What are the three approved styles for Crémant de Bordeaux?

A
  1. Blanc de Blancs
  2. Blanc de Noirs
  3. Rosé
139
Q

How long must Crémant de Bordeaux spend on its lees?

A

9 months

140
Q

What is unique about Blanquette de Limoux in terms of sparkling wines?

A

Blanquette de Limoux is the oldest sparkling wine in the world. Blanquette de Limoux can trace its history back to 1531.

141
Q

Name 3 sparkling wines of Savoie.

A

Crémant de Savoie

  • méthod traditionelle
  • sparkling white only (no rosé)
  • 60% of the blend must be Jacquère and Altesse (min 40% Jacquère must be in the final blend)
  • Remainder can be made up of Chasselas, Aligoté and Chardonnay

Seyssel

  • méthod traditionelle
  • sparkling white only (no rosé)
  • min 10% Altesse
  • other grapes allowed are Molette and Chasselas

Bugey-Cerdon

  • méthod ancestrale
  • sparkling, off-dry, rosé only (no white)
  • min 70% Gamay and Pinot Noir
  • other grapes allowed are Poulsard, Mondeuse, and Pinot Gris
142
Q

Which grapes may go into Crémant du Jura AOP?

A

Permissible grapes:

  • White: Pinot Gris, Chardonnay, Savagnin
  • Red: Poulsard, Trousseau, Pinot Noir

 

143
Q

What are the aging requirements of Crémant du Jura AOP?

A

Aging:

  • Minimum 9 mos sur lie before disgorgement;
  • Earliest release is 12 mos after tirage.
144
Q

How many DOCs are allowed to produce Lambrusco?

Which 2 are most widely seen?

A

5

  • Lambrusco Grasparossa di Castelvetro
  • Lambrusco di Sorbara
  • Lambrusco Reggiano
  • Lambrusco Salamino di Santa Croce
  • Lambrusco Mantovano
145
Q

Is Prosecco ever vintage dated?

A

Yes, Prosecco can be vintage dated if the wine is made up of 85% minimum of the stated year’s harvest.

146
Q

Prosecco can be made either frizzante or spumante.  What is the difference?

A
  • Frizzante is gently sparkling with 1.0-2.5 atmospheres of pressure;
  • Spumante is fully sparkling with a minimum of 3.5 atmospheres of pressure.
147
Q

What are major differences between Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé?

A

The major differences are location, terroir and grapes grown:

Pouilly-Fumé

  • Right bank of the Loire River;
  • Land is flatter than Sancerre;
  • Predominantly limestone and flint soils;
  • Produces white wine only from Sauvignon Blanc. 

Sancerre

  • Left bank of the Loire River;
  • Hilly area;
  • 3 main soils: Silex, Terres Blanches, Caillottes;
  • Produces whites, reds, rosés from Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir.

 

148
Q

What is the major difference between Pouilly-Fumé AOP and Pouilly-sur-Loire AOP?

A

Pouilly-Fumé AOP is made from Sauvignon Blanc whereas Pouilly-sur-Loire AOP is made from Chasselas.

149
Q

Cour-Cheverny AOP uses a varietal you don't see anywhere else in France.  What is the varietal?

A

Cour-Cheverny is the only appellation to use the Romorantin variety.  

It is never blended with any other grape.

150
Q

What styles of wine can be produced in Vouvray and what are their permitted sweetness levels?

A

Styles

Sparkling and still white wines can be produced in Vouvray.

Sweetness levels

  • Sec - max. 8g/L residual sugar
  • Sec-Tendre - off-dry
  • Demi-Sec - medium-sweet
  • Moelleux - sweet
  • Liqueureux - luxuriously sweet
151
Q

What style of wine is made in Saumur-Champigny AOP?

Name an iconic estate in this appellation.

A

Saumur-Champigny AOP makes still red wines based on Cabernet Franc.  Up to 15% Cabernet Sauvignon is permitted.

Clos Rougeard is an iconic estate in Saumur-Champigny AOP.

152
Q

What harvest method is required in Coteaux du Layon AOP and Quarts de Chaume AOP?

A

Grapes must be hand harvested in tries successifs, or several passes, through the vineyards in order to pick at the desired ripeness level.

 

153
Q

Name the 2 unofficial grand crus of Savennières AOP (both of which were elevated to AOP status).

In what year were they elevated?

 

A
  1. Savennières Coulée de Serrant AOP
  2. Savennières Roche-aux-Moines AOP

Both were elevated in 2011.

154
Q

What is another name for Chenin Blanc in the Loire Valley?

A

Pineau de la Loire

155
Q

What are the soil types of the Touraine region? 

 

A

Tuffeau: chalky soil

Alluvial and sandy soil: close to the river's banks

156
Q

What are the two départements of Alsace?

A

Bas-Rhin (north) and Haut-Rhin (south)

157
Q

Edelzwickers do or do not need to be vintage-dated?

A

Edelzwickers do not need to be vintage-dated.

158
Q

The 51st Grand Cru of Alsace, ___, was added in 2007.

 

A

Kaefferkopf

 

159
Q
  • What grape is Clos Ste. Hune produced from?
  • In which Grand Cru vineyard is Clos Ste. Hune?
  • Who makes Clos Ste. Hune?  
A

Clos Ste. Hune is made from Riesling.

Clos Ste. Hune is in the Rosacker Grand Cru vineyard and it is made by F.E. Trimbach.

Because Rosacker does not appear on the label, Clos Ste Hune is not labeled as Grand Cru.

160
Q

In what year did Alsace receive AOP status?

A

1962

Alsace was the last major French winemaking region to receive AOP status.

161
Q

In Pfalz, the vineyards around the villages of Forst and Deidesheim are collectively known as this area.

A

Mittelhaardt

162
Q

Most of Alsace's Grand Cru vineyards are located in which département?

A

The majority of Alsace's Grand Cru vineyards are in the Haut-Rhin département.

163
Q

Australia's growing season is affected by which two climate drivers?

A
  1. El Niño, which leads to decreased rainfall and hotter conditions;
  2. La Niña, which leads to increased rainfall and cooler conditions.

Western Australia is the only state not affected by these weather systems.

 

164
Q

In Alsace, Malolactic Fermentation (MLF) is normally blocked in all white grapes except for this varietal.

Why?

A

Pinot Blanc 

While Pinot Blanc lacks the edgy precision and aromatic definition of its Alsatian counterparts, its breadth can handle the softening effects of MLF.  

Not all Pinot Blancs in Alsace go through MLF, but when they do their usually-neutral tones can take on more compelling aromas.

165
Q

Alsace AOP law mandates that from 2008 forward standard Riesling wines must be ___ in style.

A

Dry

As there are always exceptions to every rule, some producers continue to make Rieslings that display residual sugar.

166
Q

The most common pruning system in Alsace is ___ ___.

A

Double Guyot

Double Guyot is also known as Replacement Cane System.

167
Q

All wines in Alsace must be in a flute bottle except for two. What are the exceptions?

A

Pinot Noir and sparkling wine are the exceptions.

168
Q

Is chaptalization permitted in Alsace?

A

Yes, chaptalization is permitted in Alsace even though the grapes have no trouble ripening.

169
Q

What was the first Grand Cru vineyard in Alsace?

A

Schlossberg was the first Grand Cru vineyard in Alsace (1975).

170
Q

What are Côte Brune and Côte Blonde?

A

They are two of the most famous vineyards in Côte-Rôtie.  Both are located in the town of Ampuis.

  • Côte Brune: Northern side of Ampuis; hard iron-rich granitic/schist soil making tighter, more rustic wines;
  • Côte Blonde: Southern side of Ampuis; granitic soil with higher proportion of clay and limestone, producing more lithe, elegant wines.
171
Q

In the mid-18th century, Bordeaux wine producers would hermitagé their wines.  What does hermitagé mean?

A

Hermitagé is when Bordelaise winemakers would use Syrah from Hermitage to beef up their own wines in color, texture, and flavor.

172
Q

In terms of production, which AOP has the largest output of wine in Languedoc-Roussillon?

A

Corbières AOP

Corbières AOP accounts for nearly 46% of the AOP-level output of the Languedoc-Roussillon region.

173
Q

What is mutage?

A

Mutage is the addition of a high alcohol spirit to an unfermented must or a fermenting wine in order to prevent or arrest fermentation and create a sweet wine.

174
Q

What are the 3 major rivers of the Roussillon region?

A
  1. Agly
  2. Têt
  3. Tech
175
Q

What are the names for the large glass jars used to age VDNs in Roussillon?

A

Bonbonnes

176
Q

Maury AOP produces what styles of wines?

A

Maury AOP produces 2 wines made from Grenache Noir:

  • dry, red table wines
  • red Vin Doux Naturels
177
Q

Oxidized Vins Doux Naturels that have been aged for at least 5 years may be labelled as what?

A

Hors d'Age

Hors d'Age means "beyond age" or "age unknown." This term can also be found on bottles of Cognac.

178
Q

Since what year has mutage been practiced in Roussillon?

A

Since 1285

179
Q

If a cru is on a bottle of Barolo or Barbaresco, what percent of grapes must come from that cru?

A

85%

However, if the cru + "Vigna" is on the label, then 100% of those grapes must be from that Vigna, or single parcel, within the cru.

Taking the attached photo as an example, by law Bruno Giacosa's Barbaresco Albesani can be 85% grapes from Albesani and 15% from any other Barbaresco cru.  But his Barbaresco Albesani Vigna Santo Stefano must be 100% from the Santo Stefano parcel within Albesani.

180
Q

What are the other grapes allowed in Valpolicella DOC and Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG?

A
  • Corvinone
  • Molinara
  • Rondinella
  • Oseleta
  • Negrara
181
Q

Why was the IGT category created, and in what year was it created?

A

The IGT category was created in 1992 to allow winemakers more freedom outside of the DOC/DOCG confines to grow, blend and bottle international varietals.

The inclusion of the IGT category is also known as Goria's Law.  It is named after Giovanni Goria, the Minister of Agriculture who introduced the IGT category after the explosion of Super Tuscans in the 1980s.

182
Q

What is special about the soils in Orvieto DOC?

A

There are outcroppings of tuffeau, the same soil found in Vouvray, which lend the taste of crunchy apples to Orvieto DOC.

183
Q

What is the famous fortified wine produced in Sicily?

A

Marsala

184
Q

What was Sicily's first DOC?

A

Etna DOC

185
Q

What body of water separates Sicily from the Italian mainland?

A

The Strait of Messina

186
Q

What is the most widely planted grape variety of Sardinia?

A

Cannonau

187
Q

What is the only DOCG appellation of Sardinia?

A

Vermentino di Gallura DOCG

188
Q

Sardinia's Cannonau is genetically identical to what grape variety?

A

Grenache

189
Q

What is Sardinia's most famous white grape variety?

A

Vermentino

190
Q

What is the sole DOCG of Sicily?

A

Cerasuolo di Vittoria DOCG

A Nero d'Avola-heavy blend with Frappato.

191
Q

What is an alleinbesitz?  Give an example.

A

An alleinbesitz is a monopole - a single vineyard owned and bottled by one winery.

Dönnhoff's Oberhauser Brücke is an example of an alleinbesitz.

 

192
Q

All Prädikatswein must have an AP number, or Amtliche Prüfungsnummer -- what is this?

A

An Amtliche Prüfungsnummer is an official exam number.

An AP number is a series of 5 sets of numbers on the front or back label indicating the wine has been approved by a tasting panel.  

The sets' meanings, reading from left to right, are:

  1. the location of the examination board or testing station;
  2. the village in which the wine was produced;
  3. the unique code for the producer;
  4. the unique number of the bottling, or lot number;
  5. the year in which the wine was tested, typically one calendar year after the vintage.
193
Q

Which 2 anbaugebiete have the right to bottle in a Bocksbeutel?

A

Producers in Baden and Franken may bottle in Bocksbeutel, a bottle shaped like a flask.

194
Q

Liebfraumilch can be produced in which 4 anbaugebiete?

A
  • Rheingau
  • Rhinehessen
  • Nahe
  • Pfalz
195
Q

Liebfraumilch originated in which anbaugebiet?

A

Rheinhessen

196
Q

What is Liebfraumilch?

A

It is an affordable, semi-sweet wine that can be made from a variety of white grapes (Riesling, Müller-Thurgau, etc.).

Liebfraubmilch translates to "mother's milk" in English. 

197
Q

What did the German Wine Law of 1971 do?

A

The German Wine Law of 1971 condensed 30,000 einzellagen into 2600 registered vineyards, each at least 5ha in size.

198
Q

Is Riesling an early ripener or a late ripener?

A

Riesling is a late ripener.

199
Q

What is an einzellage?

A

An einzellage is a single vineyard.

There are roughly 3000 einzellagen in Germany.

200
Q

Erzeugerabfüllung or Gutsabfüllung means:

A

Estate Bottled

201
Q

What is the German word for Botrytis cinerea?

A

Edelfäule

202
Q

What are some examples of Grenache-based Vin Doux Naturel?

A
  • Maury
  • Rasteau
  • Banyuls
203
Q

What grapes are used to make Vin de Paille in the Jura?

A

Chardonnay and Savagnin

204
Q

What are the four classifications of Rutherglen Muscats?

A

From lowest to highest in terms of quality:

  1. Rutherglen Muscat
  2. Classic Muscat
  3. Grand Muscat
  4. Rare Muscat
205
Q

Why do sparkling dessert wines seem less sweet than other types of dessert wines that have similar levels of residual sugar?

A

The sensation of the bubbles often makes the wines seem less sweet than they actually are.

206
Q

Who was the first person to make wine in New Zealand?

A

James Busby, a Scottish-born viticulturist best known as the founder of the Australian wine industry, made wine from his estate in Northland.

207
Q

Who was Romeo Bragato?

A

Romeo Bragato was a European viticulturist who worked in Victoria's Department of Agriculture in Australia.  

While there the Prime Minister of New Zealand requested Romeo to examine New Zealand's land and existing vineyards to further develop the wine culture and regions.

Romeo did two major things for New Zealand:

  1. He helped identify most of the modern winemaking regions on the North and South Islands;
  2. He imported phylloxera-resistant rootstocks and new scion material to combat the devastation the louse had created.
208
Q

In what year was Cloudy Bay launched?

A

1985

209
Q

Why are most vineyards in New Zealand mechanically harvested?

A

Because the country is sparsely populated and labor costs run very high; most vineyards are also planted on flat, free draining land making mechanical harvesting easy.

210
Q

Why are most of New Zealand's wines bottled under screwcap?

A

In the 1990s there was a general dissatisfaction with natural cork, so in 2001 a group of New Zealand winegrowers founded the Screwcap Initiative with other international winegrowers committing themselves to using screwcaps on all their wines, including top bottlings.

The group is funded by wineries' purchases of screwcaps, and those funds fuel screwcap research + development, education, and promotion.

Read more about it here.

 

211
Q

Which winery was the first to commercially release wine under screwcap?

A

Kim Crawford

212
Q

When a New Zealand wine is labeled with a geographical indication (GI), what minimum % of grapes must be made from that grape, come from that GI, and be from that vintage?

A

85% for each

213
Q

What are the leading weather hazards on the North Island of New Zealand?

A

Rot and spring frost

214
Q

What is the world's only political capital that is also a premium winegrowing region?

A

Vienna

215
Q

What was the 1985 wine scandal in Austria about?

A

Austrian wines suffered a blow to their reputation in 1985 when it was discovered that a few wine merchants were adding diethylene-glycol to bulk up, sweeten, and alter cheap wines.  

Referred to as 'the anti-freeze scandal,' it wasn't literal anti-freeze being added to the wines (anti-freeze uses ethylene-glycol, not diethylene-glycol).  There were no fatalities.

As a result, many positive changes and developments were made to Austrian wine law. Austria now has some of the most strict wine laws in the world and makes some of the world's most dynamic wines produced via sustainable, organic and biodynamic farming methods.

216
Q

How can you tell a wine is Austrian just by looking at the capsule?

A

All Austrian Qualitätswein carry the red and white striped banderole on the capsule (it looks like the Austrian flag).

217
Q

Landwein may be labeled with a broad geographic area.  What are these 3 broad geographic areas?

A
  1. Weinland
  2. Steierland
  3. Bergland

All 3 geographic areas are PGIs.

218
Q

What is the must weight scale used in Austria?

A

KMW, or Klosterneuburger Mostwaage

It is measured in degrees from roughly 10º to 30º.

219
Q

What are the 3 main soil types found in Austria?

A
  1. Loess
  2. Volcanic debris
  3. Calcareous
220
Q

What is Ausbruch?  What are the permissible grapes?

A

Ausbruch is a sweet wine specialty from the village of Rust on the western side of Lake Neusiedl.

Permissible grapes include Furmint, Chardonnay, Muskateller, Neuburger, and Welschriesling.

Grapes are harvested at least 30º KMW.

221
Q

How many DACs are there in Austria?

How does a region become a DAC?

A

There are 15 DACs in Austria.  See them here.

To be awarded DAC status, producers within a region have to come together and agree on:

  • the style of wine they feel best represents their region (white, red, dry, sweet, etc.)
  • the grape or grapes allowed in that style

Once the region has been approved DAC status, the producers have to make wines in the style and use the grapes they agreed upon.  If a winemaker veers from these parameters, they cannot use DAC on that wine and the wine will be declassified to the federal state (Niederösterreich, Burgenland, etc.)

222
Q

What is the word used for a single vineyard in Austria?

A

Ried, e.g. Ried Achleiten

223
Q

What are the classifications used by Vinea Wachau? 

What styles and grapes are allowed?

A

Codex Wachau is the name of the Wachau producers' weight classifications for wine.

It is used for dry, still Grüners and Rieslings based on must weight and alcohol content:

  • Steinfeder
    • lightest
  • Federspiel
    • mid-weight
  • Smaragd
    • richest
224
Q

There is a select group of producers in the Wachau that formed their own organization that categorizes wines from their region as they chose not to become a DAC.  

What is the name of the organization?

A

The full name is Vinea Wachau Nobilis Districtus, but it is known as Vinea Wachau.

225
Q

What is Wiener Gemischter Satz?

A

Wiener Gemischter Satz is a field blend of white grapes that are grown together, harvested together, and fermented together.

There are 20 varietals permitted, but a Gemischter Satz need only be made of at least 3 varietals.

These are big-boned white wines that are not allowed to show woody notes.

226
Q

What are the grapes in Retsina?

A

Savatiano and Rhoditis

227
Q

How is Retsina made?

A

Fresh pine resin is added to fermenting wine and removed at the first racking.

228
Q

In which region is Retsina the mainstay of Greece?

A

Central Greece

229
Q

What former categories were folded into PGI?

A

Traditional Appellations, e.g. Retsina

Topikos Inos, Greece's equivalent to France's Vin de Pays.

230
Q

PDO wines use what terms to indicate extended aging?

A

Reserve and Grand Reserve

Reserve whites: min. 1 year aging with at least 6 mos in barrel + 3 months in bottle

Reserve reds: min. 2 years of aging with at least 1 year in barrel + 6 mos in bottle

Grand Reserve whites: min. 2 years of aging with at least 1 year in barrel + 6 mos in bottle

Grand Reserve reds: min. 4 year aging including at least 18 mos in barrel + 18 mos in bottle

 

231
Q

What is the main white grape in the Peloponnese and in which PDO is it the principal grape?

A

Moschofilero is the main component in white wines from Mantinia PDO.

232
Q

What is the most planted white casta in Portugal?

A

Maria Gomes

233
Q

What is the most planted red casta in Portugal?

A

Castelão

234
Q

What are the subregions of the Douro Valley?

A

From west to east:

  • Baixo Corgo
  • Cima Corgo (most Port vineyards here)
  • Douro Superior
235
Q

What is the wind that blows through Mendoza and San Juan?

What is its effect?

A

Zonda

The Zonda is a dry, strong, hot wind that blows down from the Andes in the late spring/early summer afternoons; it keeps conditions arid

236
Q

The Elgin District is located in a basin in what mountain range?

A

Hottentots-Holland Mountains

The elevation of these mountains provides important cooling influences to the Elgin district.

237
Q

In terms of production, Spain ranks as the ___ largest wine producer in the world.

A

Spain ranks as the 3rd largest wine producer in the world.

  • Italy is first
  • France is second
238
Q

In what year did Spanish wine law allow irrigation in vineyards?

A

1995

239
Q

What natural feature is the border between Galicia and northern Portugal?

A

The Miño, or Minho, River

240
Q

When did Rioja receive its DOCa designation?

A

1991

241
Q
True or False:

Sparkling wine is now allowed under the Rioja DOCa.

A

True - it is called Vino Espumoso de Calidad de Rioja.

242
Q

What is the minimum aging requirement for red Rioja Reserva?

A

Red Rioja Reserva must be aged for a minimum of 3 years, including at least 1 year in oak and 6 months in bottle.

NOTE!  The chart on p.132 in the texbook designates aging minimums for general DOs in Spain.  See the note below the chart about Rioja DOCa requiring longer aging.

To view Reserva's aging requirements on the Rioja Consejo Regulador website, click here.

243
Q

What is the minimum aging requirement for red Rioja Gran Reserva?

A

Red Rioja Gran Reserva must be aged for a minimum of 5 years, including at least 2 years in oak and 2 years in bottle.

NOTE!  The chart on p.132 in the texbook designates aging minimums for general DOs in Spain.  See the note below the chart about Rioja DOCa requiring longer aging.

To view Gran Reserva's aging requirements on the Rioja Consejo Regulador website, click here.

244
Q

What is the minimum aging requirement for red Rioja Crianza?

A

Red Rioja Crianza must be aged for a minimum of 2 years, with at least 1 of those years in oak.

There is no bottle aging requirement for Rioja Crianza.

NOTE!  The chart on p.132 in the texbook designates aging minimums for general DOs in Spain.  See the note below the chart about Rioja DOCa requiring longer aging.

To view Crianza's aging requirements on the Rioja Consejo Regulador website, click here.

245
Q

What are synonyms for Monastrell outside of Spain?

A
  • Mourvèdre in France
  • Mataro in Australia
246
Q

Is chaptalization legal in Australia?

A

No, chaptalization is NOT legal in Australia as grapes have no difficulty ripening.

247
Q

As of 2019, Australia is the __th largest wine producer in the world.

A

5th

248
Q

Phylloxera was confined to these two regions when it struck Australia in the late 1800s.

A

Victoria and New South Wales

This means that several regions outside of these two have 100+ year-old vines, primarily South Australia.

249
Q

According to Wine Australia, Australia produces approximately how may liters of wine per year?  

How much of that is red wine?

A

Roughly 1.2 billion liters per year, 52% of which is red wine.

250
Q

Who produces the Yellow Tail brand?

A

Casella Family

Casella Family was founded by Maria and Filippo Casella, who emigrated from Sicily in 1957.  They are now on their 6th generation.

251
Q

Does South Australia remain phylloxera-free?

A

Yes, South Australia remains free of phylloxera.  

The state has several, strict regulations regarding plant material and quarantines.

252
Q

What other region in Limestone Coast Zone shares soil similar to Coonawara?

A

Padthaway

Padthaway has terra rossa outcroppings; it can be a more afforable alternative to Coonawara.

253
Q

What is the derived soil of Hunter Valley where Semillon grows best?

A

Volcanic basalt

254
Q

What makes Hunter Valley Semillon so distinctive?

A

Hunter Valley Semillon is picked earlier than anywhere else in Australia, producing a wine low in alcohol (usually around 11%) and high in acidity.

While snappy, fresh, and sometimes austere in their youth, Hunter Valley Semillons have proven to age 10+ years at which point they display notes of burnt toast, hay, and beeswax.

Hunter Valley Semillon is generally unoaked now, but before 1985 most did see some new oak due to the oak craze that dominated winemaking styles.

255
Q

After the glut of Australian wine between 1991-2007, how are Australian winemakers reinventing their industry and grabbing the attention of wine drinkers around the world?

A

By focusing on "...freshness, natural acidity, and regional disctinction," per Wine Australia.

There is a recent rise in 'natural' producers, such as Jauma and Ochota Barrels, in South Australia who are veering away from high-alcohol, extracted wines.

See here for a market report on the glut and subsequent turnaround of Australian wine.

256
Q

What is the Label Integrity Program in Australia?

A

The Label Integrity Program (LIP) was legislation passed by Wine Australia to ensure the truth of information on a bottle of wine.

If a grape or grapes' variety, vintage, and/or origin is stated on the label, at least 85% must be of that region, variety, or vintage.

Furthermore, the LIP stated that if a wine is made from several grapes, those grapes must be stated on the bottle in descending order of the blend.

257
Q

What 3 rivers in New South Wales provide much-needed irrigation water to the area?

A
  • Darling River
  • Murray River
  • Murrumbidgee River

Irrigation provides necessary water, especially during El Niño years when drought can be an issue.

258
Q

Braucol, Mansois, and Pinenc are all alternative names for what famous grape of Southwestern France?

A

Fer Servadou

259
Q

What other appellation overlaps Madiran AOP?

A

Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh AOP

The wines of Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh AOP will always be white wines, while the wines of Madiran AOP will be red.

260
Q

Which river runs through the Gaillac region of Southwest France?

A

The Tarn River

261
Q

What important (although still controversial) winemaking technique was developed in Madiran AOC?

A

Micro-oxygenation

262
Q

Fer Servadou is the main grape used in which communes in southwest France?

 

A

Marcillac, Entraygues, and Estaing

263
Q

What is Arrufiac?

A

Arrufiac is a white grape variety that is widely planted in Gascony in Southwest France.

The most famous AOP to use Arrufiac is the Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh AOP.

264
Q

What is the difference between moelleux wines and liquoreux wines?

A

Liquoreux wines are sweet wines always made from botrytized grapes.

Moelleux wines are made from late harvest grapes that may or may not have been botrytized.

265
Q

From what Southwestern France appellation are you most likely to find moelleux wines?

A

Côtes de Bergerac AOP

266
Q

Gaillac Primeur is made using what grape variety?

A

Gamay

Gaillac Primeur is the only en primeur or nouveau style wine produced in the Southwest of France.

267
Q

What famous winemaker proved in the 1950s that Vitis vinifera vines could withstand the harsh New York winters?

A

Dr. Konstantin Frank

Dr. Frank proved New York grape-growing naysayers wrong when he began making wine from Vitis vinifera wines in the late 1950s.

268
Q

What important climatic feature allows frost-prone New York to produce wines from Vitis vinifera grapes?

A

New York’s proximity to the Atlantic Ocean as well as its extensive network of lakes and rivers.

The thermal mass of these bodies of water reduces the severity of winter frosts in New York vineyards.

269
Q

What is the predominant climate of New York’s winegrowing regions outside of Long Island?

A

Continental

270
Q

How many AVAs are there in New York?

A

11

Finger Lakes Area

  • Finger Lakes AVA
  • Cayuga Lake AVA
  • Seneca Lake AVA

Hudson Area

  • Hudson River Region AVA
  • Upper Hudson AVA

Lake Erie Area

  • Lake Erie AVA
  • Niagara Escarpment AVA

Long Island Area

  • Long Island AVA
  • North Fork of Long Island AVA
  • The Hamptons AVA
271
Q

What is the climate for Washington's winegrowing regions east of the Cascades?

A

Continental

272
Q

What is the only AVA in Washington located west of the Cascade Mountains?

A

Puget Sound AVA

273
Q

Does Washington produce more red or white wine?

A

Red

The current ratio is around 58% red and 42% white.

274
Q

What are the 3 DVAs of Ontario?

A
  1. Niagara Peninsula
  2. Lake Erie North Shore
  3. Prince Edward County
275
Q

Which two Great Lakes form the boundaries of the Ontario wine region?

A

Erie and Ontario

The lakes also act as a climatic buffer since Ontario is close to the northern limit for commercial viticulture.

276
Q

Does Ontario produce more red or white wine?

A

White

The current split is about 60% white, 40% red.

277
Q

Niagara Peninsula is on the southern shore of Lake ___.

A

Ontario

278
Q

Grapes for Canadian icewine must be harvested frozen on the vine, and must be harvested at ___ or colder.

A

-8°C

 

279
Q

What is the minimum residual sugar level for Canadian Icewine?

A

100 grams per liter.

That's about 10% residual sugar.

280
Q

What are the 5 main winegrowing regions of California?

A
  1. North Coast
  2. Sierra Foothills
  3. Central Coast
  4. Central Valley
  5. South Coast
281
Q

What usually happens to Palomino juice after it has been pressed?

A

The juice is acidified with tartaric acid, given a shot of sulfur dioxide, then transferred to stainless steel tanks where it will ferment.

282
Q

What are some common fining agents for wine?

A
  • Egg whites
  • Bentonite clay
  • Isinglass