Where is Piedmont and what is its climate?
Piedmont is in the northwest corner of Italy.
Its climate is Continental.
What are the primary black/red grapes used in Piedmont?
- Barbera (most planted)
What are the 2 most important red DOCGs of Piedmont?
- Barolo DOCG
- Barbaresco DOCG
What is the only red grape allowed in Barolo and Barbaresco?
What is the aging requirement for Barolo?
- 38 months of aging, 18 months of which have to be in oak
What is the aging requirement for Barbaresco?
- 26 months, 9 months of which have to be in oak
What are the 5 most important Barolo communes, or villages?
- La Morra
- Castiglione Falletto
- Serralunga d'Alba
- Monforte d'Alba
What are the 2 major rivers that flow through Piedmont?
- Pò River
- Tanaro River
If a cru is on a bottle of Barolo or Barbaresco, what percent of grapes must come from that cru?
However, if the cru + "Vigna" is on the label, then 100% of those grapes must be from that Vigna, or single parcel, within the cru.
Taking the attached photo as an example, by law Bruno Giacosa's Barbaresco Albesani can be 85% grapes from Albesani and 15% from any other Barbaresco cru. But his Barbaresco Albesani Vigna Santo Stefano must be 100% from the Santo Stefano parcel within Albesani.
Is Nebbiolo an early or late ripener?
Nebbiolo is a late ripener.
What is the first red grape to ripen in Piedmont?
What is the white grape in Gavi DOCG?
Which mountains create a rain shadow in Piedmont?
What are the weather threats in Piedmont?
- summertime hail
- fog, which can lead to underripe grapes or rot
What are the 2 primary white grapes in Piedmont?
- Moscato (most planted)
Are there any IGPs or IGTs in Piedmont?
No, Piedmont has only DOCs and DOCGs.
What is the altitude range for vineyards in Barolo?
Which direction do the most important vineyards in Barolo face?
Most vineyards in Barolo face south.
What is the altitude range for vineyards in Barbaresco?
Lower altitude means Nebbiolo ripens earlier in Barbaresco, making Barbaresco usually a bit fruitier than traditional Barolo.
What DOCG can a wine use if all the Cortese grapes come from the village of Gavi?
Gavi di Gavi DOCG
Barbera d'Alba is a DO__.
Barbera d'Asti is a DO__.
Barbera d'Alba DOC
Barbera d'Asti DOCG
Which Dolcetto DOC is generally viewed as the one making better Dolcetto?
Dolcetto d'Alba DOC
What is another name for Nebbiolo in Lombardy?
What are the four defining lakes of the Lombardy region?
- Lake Como
- Lake Garda
- Lake Iseo
- Lake Maggiore
Valtellina Superiore DOCG must be made from what percentage of Nebbiolo?
Valtellina Superiore DOCG must be made from at least 90% Nebbiolo.
What appellation in Lombardy is known for producing wines from the Lambrusco family of grapes?
Lambrusco Mantovano DOC
Lambrusco Mantovano DOC is unique in that it is the only Lambrusco made outside of Emilia-Romagna.
What grape variety has the greatest vineyard acreage in Lombardy?
How many DOCGs are in Lombardy?
- Moscato di Scanzo (Scanzo)
- Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico
- Sforzato di Valtellina
- Valtellina Superiore
What are the subzones of the Valtellina Superiore DOCG?
From west to east:
The Lugana DOC is shared between Lombardy and what other Italian region?
What is the smallest DOCG in Lombardy in terms of geographical area?
Moscato di Scanzo DOCG
In terms of geographical area, Moscato di Scanzo is the smallest DOCG in all of Italy.
Still wines from the geographical area of Franciacorta must be labeled under what appellation?
Sforzato di Valtellina DOCG is authorized to produce what style of wine?
Sforzato di Valtellina DOCG are Nebbiolo-based wines, vinified dry, made using the appassimento (grape-drying) process.
The Lugana DOC is located nearest which lake?
The Lugana DOC makes wines primarily from what grape variety?
In Lombardy, Verdicchio is also known as Trebbiano di Lugana. For Laguna DOC white wines, 90% must be Verdicchio (Trebbiano di Lugana).
The Valtellina wine region runs along what river?
The Valtellina wine region runs almost perfectly east-west along the course of the Adda River.
What grapes are used to make the wines of Curtefranca DOC?
Curtefranca DOC whites are made from Chardonnay and Pinot Bianco.
Reds are made from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Nebbiolo, Barbera, and Merlot.
What grape is allowed in the sparkling wines of Franciacorta DOCG but not the still wines of Curtefranca DOC?
In this part of Lombardy, Pinot Nero (Pinot Noir) can be used exclusively for sparkling wines.
The Vespolina grape variety is more widely known as what in Lombardy?
Ughetta/Vespolina is more widely grown in Piedmont, but plays a significant role in the Nebbiolo-based wines of Lombardy as well.
What does the term Chiaretto mean on a bottle of Lombardian wine?
Chiaretto is a term for rosato (rosé) style wines made in certain parts of Lombardy.
Chiaretto is also used in the Veneto for rosato wines from the Bardolino DOC, called Bardolino Chiaretto.
The Croatina grape variety often goes by what other name in Lombardy?
What lake lies north of Franciacorta DOCG and Curtefranca DOC?
Veneto lies on what sea?
What lake is on Veneto's western border?
What is the main red grape in Valpolicella DOC and Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG?
It has a sour cherry and herbal profile and must make up between 45-95% of the blend.
What are the other grapes allowed in Valpolicella DOC and Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG?
Grapes grown on the valley floor in Valpolicella use which DOC?
Grapes grown in the foothills of Valpolicella use which DOC?
Valley floor: Valpolicella DOC
Foothills: Valpolicella Classico DOC
What are the 2 styles of wines in Veneto made using the passito process?
- Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG
- Recioto della Valpolicella DOCG
How is Valpolicella Ripasso made?
Fresh, just-fermented Valpolicella DOC wine is poured over drained but unpressed skins left over from Amarone or Recioto production; both are racked into to a different container where a secondary alcoholic fermentation occurs giving the Valpolicella Ripasso more structure and richness.
Recioto della Valpolicella is made with fresh, semi-dried, or dried grapes?
Recioto della Valpolicella is made with semi-dried grapes.
Recioto della Valpolicella wines are dry, semi-sweet, or sweet?
Recioto della Valpolicella wines are semi-sweet to sweet.
Which sparkling wine DOC in Veneto is shared with Friuli?
Prosecco DOC puts out >2,000,000 hl of wine annually.
What 2 influences help cool down the warm climate of Veneto?
- Cool breezes from Lake Garda
- Diurnal shifts that affect vineyards planted in the foothills of The Alps
What is the river that separates Veneto from Emilia-Romagna?
The Pò River
The vineyards on the flat land near the Pò River are planted mostly to which grapes?
Under which IGT are these grapes usually bottled?
These high-yielding grapes go into inexpensive wines usually bottled under Veneto IGT.
- Pinot Grigio
Describe the 2 distinct areas of Soave.
1. Northern foothills
- soils are limestone, clay, and some volcanic rock
- grapes ripen slowly due to altitude
- resulting wines have higher acid and can age
2. Southern flat plain
- soils are sandy and alluvial
- grapes ripen faster
- resulting wines are fruitier and are meant to be drunk young
What is the main grape used in Soave and Soave Classico?
The other grapes permitted in Soave and Soave Classico are Trebbiano di Soave and Chardonnay.
Grapes grown in the foothills in Soave can use which DOC?
Soave Classico DOC
Amarone della Valpolicella: is it dry, off-dry, or sweet?
Amarone della Valpolicella can be dry or off-dry.
A maximum of 12g/L of residual sugar is allowed.
What is Italy's northernmost region?
How are the majority of wines from Trentio-Alto Adige labelled: by varietal, by fantasy name, or by zone?
What are the main white grapes of Alto Adige?
And the main white grapes of Trentino?
- Pinot Grigio
- Pinot Bianco
- Pinot Grigio
What are the main red grapes of Alto Adige?
And the main red grapes of Trentino?
Are there any DOCGs in Trentino-Alto Adige?
No. Only DOCs in Trentino-Alto Adige.
What is the climate of Trentino-Alto Adige?
Moderate Alpine climate, with cold winters and short summers with low rainfall.
What 2 bodies of water provide moderating influences to Trentino-Alto Adige?
- Lake Garda
- River Adige
Trentino-Alto Adige is in the foothills of which mountain range?
Alto Adige experiences a big diurnal shift due to its being high in altitude.
Where are vineyards planted in Alto Adige and what aspect do they have?
Vineyards in Alto Adige are planted on terraces on both sides of the River Adige facing southeast and southwest.
Vineyards in Trentino are planted where: on the valley floor, on slopes, or both?
Vineyards in Trentino are planted both on the valley floor and on slopes, though these slopes are lower in altitude than they are in Alto Adige.
Trentino is north or south of Alto Adige?
Trentino is south of Alto Adige.
It has a slightly warmer climate than Alto Adige.
The northeastern region of Friuli abuts which countries?
Austria to the north
Slovenia to the east
Friuli receives airflow from which two sources?
- The Alps
- The Adriatic
What is the climate of northern Friuli?
What is the climate of southern Friuli?
Northern: moderate Continental
Southern: warm Maritime
What is the most planted white grape in Friuli?
Pinot Grigios from Friuli are medium to full bodied, richly textured, and stone fruited.
What is Friuli's most planted red grape?
What is Friuli's most important native white grape?
What are the 3 most important DOCs in Friuli?