Describe the climate of Portugal.
The majority of Portugal is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, so most of the country has a Maritime climate.
- Going inland, the climate becomes drier and hotter which can be mitigated by elevation.
What are the classification levels of Portuguese wine?
In ascending order:
IGP (Indicação Geográfica Protegida), aka Vinho Regional
DOP and DOC are both used in Portugal (Denominação de Origen Protegida and Denominação de Origen Controlada)
Table wines without geographical indication are labeled as ___.
Name the 5 most important DOCs/DOPs of Portugal.
Where is Vinho Verde located?
Vinho Verde is in the very northwestern corner of Portugal, on the south side of the Minho River across from Galicia.
The Altantic Ocean is on Vinho Verde's western border.
What is the climate of Vinho Verde?
Vinho Verde's climate is moderate Maritime due to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean.
The region receives high amounts of rainfall throughout the year.
Due to the high amount of rainfall in Vinho Verde, what threats do the vines face?
Fungal diseases can be rampant if the vines' canopies are not managed correctly.
What is the classic vineyard trellising system used in Vinho Verde?
The pergola system
In recent years Vinho Verde has started to move into which other trellising system?
Spur-pruned VSP system - this allows for increased air circulation and tractors/mechanization.
What are the local white grape varieties of Vinho Verde?
What is the classic style of wine of Vinho Verde?
Low alcohol, crisp, citrusy white wines -- sometimes with a kiss of residual sugar to make them just off-dry -- and almost always with a slight prickle which gives them a snappy, thirst-quenching quality.
Vinho Verde Alvarinho is made exclusively from this white grape variety.
What is the most important subregion of Vinho Verde DOC for the production of quality Alvarinho?
What is different about the Alvarinhos here vs. the rest of Vinho Verde?
Monção e Melgaço
Alvarinhos from Monção e Melgaço express riper, more tropical fruits, fuller body, and higher alcohol (11.5 - 14%) compared to the everyday, light-bodied whites of Vinho Verde.
What is the typical abv range of Vinho Verde?
8% - 11.5%
If a wine label reads Vinho Verde Alvarinho, what % must be Alvarinho?
What is the oldest demarcated wine region in the world?
What is the mountain range on the western side of the Douro Valley?
Where is Douro DOC located?
The Douro DOC is located approximately 80 km upriver (east) from the city of Porto.
The Douro DOC abuts the border with Spain.
What style of wine is the Douro Valley most famous for?
The production of Port wines.
Related Port questions can be found in the Port deck.
What are the differences between Douro DOC and Porto DOC?
Both are produced within the delimitation of the Douro Valley, however:
- Douro is the appellation for dry table wines
- Porto is the appellation for sweet fortified wines
Name the 5 leading red grape varieties used for both unfortified and fortified wines in the Douro.
- Touriga Nacional
- Touriga Franca
- Tinta Barroca
- Tinta Cão
- Tinta Roriz (aka Tempranillo)
Which grape variety is considered the highest quality for red wine production in the Douro?
What are the different names of Tempranillo used in Portugal?
Tinta Roriz in Douro
Aragonês in Alentejo
Besides the production of Port and dry red table wine, what other styles of wine are made in Douro DOC?
Still, dry, white wines and some sparkling wine (the latter not as common).
More than 40 white grape varieties are permitted to be grown in Douro.
What is the elevation range in the Dão?
200m to 400m in elevation.
Which white grape variety is used for high-quality wines in the Dão?
Name the most important red varieties in the Dão.
- Touriga Nacional
- Tinta Roriz
- Alfrocheiro (deeply colored)
What is the Spanish name of Jaen?
Where is the Bairrada Region located within Portugal?
What is its climate?
Bairrada is between the Atlantic Ocean and the Dão.
It has a Maritime climate.
What are the main grape varieties of the Bairrada region?
Baga for red wines
Bical and Maria Gomes for white wines
Which international red varieties are allowed in Bairrada?
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah are allowed to be grown in Bairrada.
They are usually blended with Baga.
What is the largest wine region in Portugal by size?
see map in textbook p.140 -- note how Alentejo DOP is located within the larger Alentejano PGI.
The largest Vinho Regional region in Portugal is ___.
Vinho Regional Alentejano
Name three other important Vinho Regional areas in Portugal.
- Vinho Regional Lisboa
- Vinho Regional Peninsula de Setúbal
- Vinho Regional Tejo
What white grape varieties are used in Alentejo?
- Antão Vaz
What red grape varieties are used in Alentejo?
Alentejo DOP spans a large area, and the wines vary in style from the north to the south.
- In the ___, the wines are more elegant thanks to cooler temps and more rainfall.
- In the ___, the wines are rich and more concentrated due to a hotter, drier climate.
- North - more elegant
- South - richer
Besides vine production, what other crop is Alentejo known for?
Cork trees, whose scientific name is Quercus suber.
Alentejo is the biggest region of natural cork production in the world.