What is the climate of Burgundy?
The overall climate is Continental.
It ranges from:
- cool Continental in north (Chablis)
- moderate Continental in south (Chalonnaise + Mâconnais)
What are the 2 main grape varieties of Burgundy?
Red: Pinot Noir
What are 2 other grapes grown in Burgundy?
What is the profile of a classic Aligoté from Burgundy?
Aligoté tends to be neutral and crisp with high acidity, and not overtly aromatic.
What 3 climatic hazards does Burgundy experience?
- Rain around flowering and harvest (which can cause rot)
- Springtime frost
- Late summer hail storms
Which Burgundian grape is particularly susceptible to grey rot?
Which grape accounts for about half the total planted vineyard area in Burgundy: Chardonnay or Pinot Noir?
Pinot Noir covers only about 1/3 of the total planted vineyard area.
If you were to describe a Pinot Noir from Burgundy quickly, what are some descriptors you’d use?
- Red fruit
- High acidity
- Low-to-medium tannins
What is the translation of Côte d’Or into English?
What are the 2 subregions of the Côte d’Or?
- Côte de Nuits
- Côte de Beaune
Where are village-level vineyards located?
Village wines are found mostly on flat land or at the bottom of slopes.
Where on the slopes are most Premier Cru vineyards in Burgundy located?
Premier Cru vineyards are mostly located mid-slope, with some just above and just below mid-slope.
Where on the slopes are most Grand Cru vineyards in Burgundy located?
Which direction do they face?
Most Grand Crus are found mid-slope with east-to-southeast exposure.
Exposure and soil variation are at their best mid-slope, where grapes are less prone to frost, see longer sunlight hours, have better drainage and protection from westerly winds.
Is the following wine from a single 1er Cru or is it a blend of 1er Cru vineyards?
It is a blend of 1er Cru vineyards.
This wine is sourced from two or more 1er Cru vineyards within the same village, in this case Gevrey-Chambertin.
However, when a vineyard name is on the label it must be solely produced from that precise vineyard, e.g. Gevrey-Chambertin 1er Cru Les Cazetiers.
What are the main regions (areas of production) in Burgundy?
From north to south:
- Côte d’Or: Côte de Nuits/Côte de Beaune
- Côte Chalonnaise
- Beaujolais (technically part of Burgundy)
What is the only grape variety allowed in Chablis AOP?
What is the main weather hazard in Chablis?
The main weather hazard in Chablis is frost.
Cold temperatures (under 0°C/32ºF) can freeze the fresh buds and burn the green raw material.
How do Chablis producers combat spring frost?
- Sprinklers: water is sprayed over the vineyard to create a coating of ice around the fresh buds. This layer of ice prevents bud damage due to the latent heat of the ice; (see photo)
- Heaters and smudge pots: small fires contained in clay or metal pots placed amongst the vines to prevent cold air from being trapped and freezing vine material.
Less important vineyards in Chablis are classified as _____.
These vineyards are in less favorable areas.
How is village level Chablis different from Chablis 1er Cru and Chablis Grand Cru in respect to exposure and location?
Village level Chablis vineyards usually face north and are located on flatter land;
Chablis 1er + Grand Cru vineyards usually face south and are located on hillsides.
How many Grand Crus are in Chablis?
One: Grand Cru Chablis, which is one single hill divided into 7 climats
Which Chablis classification is most likely going to see oak?
Chablis Grand Cru
Sometimes 1er Cru Chablis will see old oak, too, but village level Chablis will rarely see any oak at all.
What is the river that runs through the heart of Chablis?
The Serein River
What is the northernmost appellation in Burgundy?
What are the 4 levels of classification in Burgundy?
The 4 levels of classification in Burgundy are:
- Premier Cru
- Grand Cru
Explain the main difference between Village and 1er Cru within the Burgundian classification.
Village: quality wines, most often produced from a blend of plots within a single village.
1er Cru: higher quality wines produced from a specific climat/site/vineyard.
1er Crus are delineated because they have a particular soil, microclimate, slope inclination, and/or aspect.
1er Cru vineyards can be released as a single climat or they can be blended with other 1er Cru climats from the same village. In the case of the latter, the wine takes no vineyard name; just the village + 1er Cru.
What is a monopole?
A monopole is a vineyard plot entirely owned by a single grower.
The Massif Central runs along which side of the Côte d’Or: the east side or west side?
What does this provide the Côte d’Or?
This allows the Côte d’Or to have east and southeast-facing hillside vineyards.
Generally speaking, Pinot Noirs from the Côte de Nuits tend to be ____ while Pinot Noirs from the Côte de Beaune tend to be ____.
CdNuits: full bodied, long lived
CdBeaune: fruitier than CdNuits, not as long lived
How many Grand Crus are in the Côte d’Or?
- All red Grand Crus in Burgundy, except one, are made in the Côte de ____.
- All white Grand Crus in Burgundy, except one, are made in the Côte de ____.
- Côte de Nuits
- Côte de Beaune
Is the Côte de Nuits the northern or southern part of the Côte d’Or?
Northern part of the Côte d’Or
List 4 important villages of the Côte de Nuits.
North to south:
Name Gevrey-Chambertin’s 2 most famous Grand Crus.
- Chambertin-Clos de Bèze
In what village is this vineyard located?
What is the classification level: Village, 1er Cru, or Grand Cru?
What are the requirements to achieve this classification?
This wine comes from the village Gevrey-Chambertin from the Grand Cru Chambertin vineyard.
Requirements for a wine to be Grand Cru:
- This wine must come from the single, stated plot on the label, in this case the Grand Cru Chambertin vineyard;
- Grand Crus have to have lower yields and higher minimum must weights compared to Village or 1er Cru.
Name Vougeot’s most famous Grand Cru.
Clos de Vougeot
What is a Clos vineyard in Burgundy?
A clos is a vineyard enclosed by walls.
One famous Clos in Burgundy is Clos de Vougeot Grand Cru in Vougeot.
Name Vosne-Romanée’s 3 most famous Grand Crus.
- La Romanée
- La Tâche
Where is Nuits-Saint-Georges AOP located, and what is it best known for?
Nuits-Saint-Georges is the southernmost village of the Côte-de-Nuits best known for its Pinot Noir.
Does Nuits-Saint-Georges have any Grand Crus?
No, Nuits-Saint-Georges does not have any Grand Crus.
The highest classified vineyards in Nuits-Saint-Georges are 1er Cru.
What are 7 key villages of the Côte de Beaune?
Which are known for red wines and which are known for white wines?
Villages best known for red wines
- Aloxe-Corton AOP
- Beaune AOP
- Pommard AOP
- Volnay AOP
Villages best known for white wines
- Meursault AOP
- Puligny-Montrachet AOP
- Chassagne-Montrachet AOP
Name Aloxe-Corton’s 2 famous Grand Crus.
Name Puligny-Montrachet’s and Chassagne-Montrachet’s most famous Grand Cru.
The two communes share this Grand Cru.
Most Pinot Noirs from Burgundy are aged in what type of vessel?
What is the typical barrel aging period?
228L French oak barrels, often a portion of them new.
16-18 months in barrel is the norm.
What is the typical barrel aging period for white Burgundy?
What is premature oxidation?
In the early aughts, many white Burgundy wines started aging faster than normal and no one was or has been able to explain why it happened.
It continues to be an issue.
How do Chardonnays from Puligny-Montrachet differ from those produced in either Chassagne-Montrachet or Meursault?
- Puligny-Montrachet wines are electric with bright, sharp acidity and a strong, racy minerality;
- Meursault wines by contrast are about opulence and richness, with a round fruity character;
- The wines of Chassagne-Montrachet are mostly balanced between those two styles. Some richness and power here, but with a great freshness, minerality, and balance.
All these differences are created by terroir: the influence of the climate and the texture of the soil, although a given producer’s style will also influence the final wine.
True or false:
Meursault AOP does not have any Grand Cru vineyards.
True, Meursault has no Grand Crus.
The highest classified vineyards in Meursault are 1er Crus.
Do Volnay and Pommard have any Grand Crus?
No, Pommard and Volnay do not have any Grand Cru vineyards.
The highest classified vineyards in Pommard and Volnay are 1er Crus.
What is the style of wine found in Pommard AOP and Volnay AOP?
Pinot Noir made in a still, dry style.
What is the main difference between Côte de Nuits-Villages and Côtes de Beaune-Villages?
Stylistically, how are Bourgogne Hautes-Côtes de Nuits and Bourgogne Hautes-Côtes de Beaune different from Côte de Nuits-Villages and Côte de Beaune-Villages?
Bourgogne HCdNuits + Bourgogne HCdBeaune tend to be lighter in body and less concentrated than CdN-Villages and CdB-Villages.
This is primarily because the vineyards designated as Hautes-Côtes are planted at higher elevation, where the temperature is cooler and the vines are more exposed to wind.
Where is the Côte Châlonnaise?
Directly south of the Côte de Beaune.
Is harvest in Côte Chalonnaise before or after the Côte d’Or’s?
AFTER because Chalonnaise is higher in altitude, which produces wines lighter in style than the Côte d’Or.
Wines from Chalonnaise also mature earlier than wines from the Côte d’Or.
Name the main villages of the Côte Chalonnaise.
From north to south:
Is Rully AOP better known for its white or red wines?
Whites, but it does make some reds.
Fun Fact: Rully has been a key production area of Crémant de Bourgogne since 1822.
Which AOP in Côte Chalonnaise produces white wine only?
What is the regional AOP of the Côte Chalonnaise?
Bourgogne Côte Chalonnaise AOP
What are the AOPs in the Côte Châlonnaise best known for their production of red wines?
- Mercurey AOP
- Givry AOP
Wines from the Côte Châlonnaise and Mâconnais tend to be more or less age-worthy than wines from the Côte de Beaune?
Less age-worthy, but that makes them great for early drinking.
Wine from Côte Châlonnaise and Mâconnais are usually more approachable and meant to be enjoyed in their youth, but can offer good value.
Chardonnays from Mâconnais and Côte Chalonnaise don’t express the same precision and minerality as Chardonnays from the Côte de Beaune.
What is the most widely planted grape variety in the Mâconnais?
Why are Chardonnays from Mâconnais fuller and riper in style than those from the Côte de Beaune?
Mâconnais tends to be warmer and have a longer growing season than the Côte de Beaune; plus, many of its vineyards are shaped like amphitheaters (which trap heat) so the grapes achieve a higher level of ripeness.
Why does the Mâconnais primarily make white wine?
Because of the soil type: it’s high in limestone-rich soils, which are very suitable for Chardonnay.
Chardonnay represents about 90% of the total plantings in the Mâconnais.
What styles of wine are produced under the Mâcon AOP?
Red and white wines
What is the only style allowed to be made in Mâcon Villages?
White wine only
Of the following regions, which one allows Gamay as one of its red grapes (in addition to Pinot Noir)?:
- Côte d’Or
- Côte Chalonnaise
Gamay here offers different expression from Beaujolais as the soils in Mâcon are predominantly limestone, not granite.
What are 3 key appellations of the Mâconnais?
Which two are its most famous?
- Saint-Véran AOP
- Pouilly-Fuissé AOP
- Mâcon AOP/Mâcon-Villages AOP
During the aging process of white Burgundy, what are some techniques used to create more flavor and complexity?
Sur lie aging and bâtonnage.
Sur lie aging, or the aging of wine ‘on the lees,’ is when yeast cells fall to the bottom of the fermentation vessel after fermentation and begin to break down. After a few months of aging, the wine displays more body and texture, with deeper flavors.
Bâtonnage is the stirring of the lees from the bottom of the oak cask. Bâtonnage introduces oxygen to the lees which helps prevent off-odors, or reduction. It also increases the lees contact to add extra richness and roundness to the wine.
What styles of wine are allowed in the new appellation Bourgogne Côte d’Or?
Wines can be red or white and produced from any of the villages in the Côte d’Or