Flashcards in Adolescent Personality & Identity Development Deck (21):
Discuss idea that adolescence is s time of "storm and stress"
This has been refuted by research showing only about 20% of adolescents experience this as a time of excessive turmoil
What is the rate of psychological disturbance like for adolescents?
Similar to rates of young children and adults
Name Marcia's 4 stages of adolescent identity development, i.e., "statuses"
Each status characterized by different experiences related to identity crisis & identity commitment
(1) Identity diffusion
(2) Identity foreclosure
(3) Identity (crisis) moratorium
(4) Identity achievement
When do differences in physical development in children become most apparent?
Adolescence; children vary with regard to specific ages that they reach developmental milestones but generally during adolescence
What are some gender differences in physical development?
Preadolescent boys & girls are about equal in strength & speed; however, in adolescence, boys become stronger & faster
How does the timing of growth spurts vary between boys & girls?
For girls, adolescent growth spurt begins about 2 years earlier than for boys, i.e., 10.5 y.o. versus 12.5 y.o.
Describe the effects of early & late maturation on psychological adjustment between boys & girls
Best adjustment outcomes (popularity, school performance, self-image) found among early-maturing boys; next "best off" = average-maturing boys & girls; followed by late-maturing girls; WORSE outcomes = late-maturing boys & early-maturing girls
What are some problems of early-maturing girls?
Most severe problems; emotional instability, declines in academic achievement, drug & alcohol use
What makes problems of early-maturing girls even more pronounced?
When perceptions about maturity are measured rather than actual physical maturity, that is, it is adolescent's internal model of "normal" maturation that seems to be most important for adjustment outcomes
Haven't undergone identity crisis & are not committed to an identity; "I haven't given it much thought; I don't know what I want to be"
Strong commitment to identity that was not the outcome of identity crisis, but, instead, was suggested by another person or parent; "I'm going to be a therapist just like my dad"
Identity (Crisis) Moratorium
Occurs when person is having identity crisis & actively exploring different options & beliefs; in response to question about career choice, adolescent might say she's feeling very confused about kind of job she wants & is skeptical about there being one that fits her likes & dislikes
Individual has resolved his/her identity crisis & committed to particular identity; "I've given it a lot of thought and I've decided I want to be a professional wrestler"
What percentage of people have achieved a stable identity by age 24?
Are identity moratoriums common?
No, they're relatively uncommon & when they do occur, it is most often during early years of college
Who critiqued Kohlberg's theory of moral development based on differences in females and why?
Carol Gilligan; she believed that moral judgments of females often rest on concerns about caring for others
What causes the "loss of voice" according to Gilligan?
Females experience this as result of internalization of sexist messages
When are females at highest risk for "relational crises" associated with "loss of voice"?
What is meant by a "relational crisis"?
Females abandoning themselves (strengths & accomplishments) and others to conform to cultural expectations about femininity
What is an example of pressure to conform to stereotypic female roles?
In middle school years when teachers call on boys more often in class & tolerate their interruptions while disapproving of girls who interrupt